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R. Tina Catania

English abstract: In studies of immigration, generation is typically considered a static categorical system. I argue, however, that generation is a fluid construct and must be understood as place-based. Drawing on fieldwork conducted among Latino/as along the Texas–Mexico border, I seek to explore what current framings of generation leave out. Many in Laredo, Texas, see this border as allowing or preventing movement; these perceptions impact the constructions of generational categories. Cross-border travel, conceptualizations of place and immigration, and mixed-generational unions shape immigrant experiences, and in turn, affect concepts of generation. I conclude by offering ideas and inviting discussion on how the concept of generation can be re-worked to move beyond blunt categories and be re-conceptualized from the perspective of immigrants.

Spanish abstract: Usualmente los estudios sobre inmigración consideran la generación cómo un sistema categórico estático. Este artículo argumenta que es una construcción fluida que debe ser comprendida como una iniciativa local. Mediante un trabajo de campo realizado a latinos/as en la frontera entre Texas y México, el artículo explora qué corrientes actuales de generaciones están excluidas. Muchos en Laredo (Texas) ven esa frontera como un factor que permite o impide los desplazamientos, percepciones que influyen en las construcciones de categorías generacionales. Los viajes transfronterizos, las conceptualizaciones del lugar y de la inmigración y las uniones generacionales mixtas, dibujan las experiencias de los inmigrantes, lo que a su vez, influye en los conceptos de las generaciones. El autor concluye abriendo un espacio de discusión sobre la manera de cómo se debe de re-trabajar el concepto de generación para sobrepasar las categorías terminantes y para ser re-conceptualizadas desde la perspectiva de los inmigrantes.

French abstract: Dans les études portant sur l'immigration, la génération est généralement considérée comme un système rigide statique. Cependant, nous soutenons que la génération est une construction fluide et doit être comprise comme une initiative locale. Partant d'un travail de terrain réalisé auprès des Latino / le long de la frontière entre le Texas et le Mexique, je cherche à explorer les courants qui traversent ce e génération lésée. Beaucoup à Laredo, au Texas voient ce e frontière comme un facteur favorisant ou empêchant les déplacements; ces perceptions influent sur la construction des catégories générationnelles. La migration transfrontalière, les conceptualisations de l'espace et de l'immigration, et les mariages générationnels mixtes façonnent les expériences vécues par les migrants, qui à leur tour, influent sur les concepts de génération. Nous concluons en proposant des idées et invitant à la discussion sur la façon dont le concept de génération peut être retravaillé pour s'étendre au-delà des catégories franches et être re-conceptualisé du point de vue des immigrés.

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Hanna Herzog

The essay follows the development of gender studies in Israel. It argues that from an invisible social category in the early stages of social research, women as a social category has been continuously viewed with different meanings through different epistemological lenses. A major shift has taken place from gender to genders, from 'women' as a social category to 'women' as fragmented, variegated, and multi-dimensional entities. This transition from gender to genders raises a dilemma, for feminism as theory and as a social movement, of what kind of feminist politics, if any at all, is possible or needed.

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Uri Ram

The present article focuses upon post-Zionism as an emergent counter-hegemonic discourse in contemporary Israel. Offered here are a broad analysis and survey of post-Zionism in the following order: (1) a review of the history of the concept 'post-Zionism' since its emergence in 1993, as well as a retrospective view of its sources; (2) an exposure of manifestations of post-Zionist culture in Israel; (3) an analysis of four dif- ferent theories of post-Zionism; (4) an account of some ideological con- troversies surrounding post-Zionism; and (5) an evaluation of the state of post-Zionism in the mid 2000s and an estimation of its future prospects. In the spirit of critical theory it is argued that post-Zionism should not be weighted in positivistic terms of popularity or effectiveness but rather in terms of an 'immanent' category, which taps undercurrents, and a 'tran- scendent' category, which points to exogenous normative horizons.

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Ester Levanon-Mordoch

This paper examines the presentation of female characters in dramatic roles, in which they appear as representatives of marginalized Jewish immigrants to Israel (olim hadashim, to use the Hebrew term). The two plays examined here were written as criticisms of Israel's double standards concerning the actual acceptance and assimilation of the 'welcomed and longed-for' immigrants, and have hitherto been examined from this perspective. A reading of these plays from the perspective of feminist critique shows that the representation of the central female characters suffers from a pattern of double stereotypical characterization; these characters are stigmatized and stereotyped both in the category of 'women' and in the category of 'unwelcome immigrants'. Thus, in some cases, counterproductively to the playwright's attempt to criticize Israeli institutions and hegemonic society, these representations reveal the stereotypical tendencies inherent in the playwright's own 'transparent' or 'unconscious' world view when it comes to female representation.

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Dafna Halperin

This study aims to identify future care preferences and examine the associations between personal resources, filial expectations, and family relations and the preferences of independent elderly Jews and Arabs aged 65 and over, using mixed methods. Data were collected using structured interviews of 168 Jews and 175 Arabs; additionally, 20 Jews and Arabs were interviewed in depth to enable more detailed analysis. The main findings show the effects of the modernization and individualization processes on elder preferences. Significant differences were found between Jews and Arabs for most variables. Whereas Jews' first preference was formal care, with mixed care following as second, Arabs preferred mixed care to other types. Differences in several factors associated with preference for mixed care were also noted, including in categories that were identified in the qualitative phase, such as 'dignity' versus 'honor' and the meaning of 'home'.

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As'ad Ghanem

The question of the nature of the Israeli regime is related to two different but connected inquiries. First, its proper classification under the categories of democracy/non-democracy, a question that is closely connected to our understanding of the nature and basic features of democracy. This question has received considerable scholarly attention in the past two decades. Beside its traditional classification as a liberal democracy (see, e.g., Yakobson and Rubinstein 2008), Smooha (1990, 1998) formulated the “ethnic democracy” model to account for Israel’s political structure, Rouhana (1997) classified Israel as “ethnic state” and its regime as “exclusive ethnic state,” Peled and Navot (2005) refer to the Israeli regime as a “majoritarian democracy,” while Yiftachel (1997, 2006) described it as an archetype for “ethnocracy.” I have also dealt with the classification of the Israeli regime on several previous occasions (Ghanem 1998, 2001, 2010; Ghanem, Rouhana, and Yiftachel 2000; Rouhana and Ghanem 1998).

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Hybridization and Purification

The Experiences of Mizrachi Middle-Class Adolescents in Israel

Guy Abutbul Selinger

In contrast to the view, expressed widely in public and in academic discourses, that ethnic categories are no longer significant in explaining Israeli social processes and that ethnic relations have become less hierarchical, this study demonstrates the continuing importance of ethnicity and hierarchical relations in Israeli society. Their importance is reflected in the social processes undergone by middle-class Mizrachi adolescents. Mizrachi families endow their adolescents with family capital—that is, social and cultural patterns—similar to that of middle-class Ashkenazi families. However, because these social and cultural patterns are identified as Ashkenazi, public discourses and practices signify for Mizrachi adolescents their ethnic identity and thus restore the blurred ethnic boundary. This signification is done through mechanisms of 'hybridization' and 'purification', as discussed in the article. These cultural mechanisms maintain the hierarchical relations between Mizrachi and Ashkenazi Jews within Israel's middle class.

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Gadi Benezer

This article discusses the reactions of Israelis in the public space to 'mixed families' that include members of Ethiopian origin, written from the perspective of members of such families. The findings reveal that Israelis still react to the dark skin color of Ethiopians in mixed families and that, in most cases, 'black colors white', that is, behavior toward the mixed family is determined mainly by the presence of its black member. The three typical responses are as follows: (1) expressions of surprise at the presence of an Ethiopian in the family, evincing a stereotypical view of Ethiopian immigrants and their place in Israeli society; (2) invasions of privacy that are perceived by the family members as greatly exaggerated when compared with Israeli norms; and (3) declarations of appreciation for/admiration of the 'white' partner in the family for 'lifting up' the 'black' person through a (supposedly) altruistic act. The major conclusion is that Israeli society has yet to accept mixed families that include Jews of Ethiopian origin as a normative category.

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Lena Saleh and Mira Sucharov

abstraction’. Here, we start with a particular issue or policy event and encourage students to identify into which category or categories that event falls. If they are writing an op-ed about the Oslo process, for example, they might identify that case as an

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Hebrew Literature in the ‘World Republic of Letters’

Translation and Reception, 1918–2018

Yael Halevi-Wise and Madeleine Gottesman

Having recently dusted itself off from a religious domain, Hebrew literature today must rely on translation and international dissemination to reach beyond its five million native speakers. Although Hebrew certainly falls into the category of lesser