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Moving Onward?

Secondary Movers on the Fringes of Refugee Mobility in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

Jolien Tegenbos and Karen Büscher

refugees and other migrants that emerges through “mixed flows” where the two are said to travel alongside each other. 2 This tension between sharply demarcated policy categories and what is perceived to be an increasingly complex migration landscape

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Vietnamese Cinema on the Move

Representing Mobility and Circulating Movies in Vietnam and Abroad

Stéphanie Ponsavady

“Where can I see this Vietnamese movie?” Try sitting on board a Vietnamese Airlines jet to Hanoi. In Vietnam, movie theaters have been replaced by multiplexes showing the latest American blockbusters. Foreigners are most likely to encounter Vietnamese cinema for the first time on the move, as they travel to the country, by selecting the World Cinema category of their in-flight entertainment system. Watching a Vietnamese movie will both distract them from the long-haul and give them a taste of their destination culture as they make their way there. Twice the displacement, experiencing Vietnamese cinema has become a vehicle for representations of mobility and an integral part of contemporary travel practices. This review will consider a variety of ways the mutual relationship between cinematic figurations of movement and processes of mobility have shaped Vietnamese cinema.

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From Epistemology of Suspicion to Racial Profiling

Hans Gross, Mobility, and Crime around 1900

Gal Hertz

Hans Gross (1847–1915), the founder of Austro-Hungarian criminology, developed an epistemology of suspicion that targeted and profiled individuals as well as social and ethnic groups based mainly on their uprootedness and displacement. The scientific practices of observation and analysis he implemented in criminal investigations were anchored in epistemological assumptions that redefined and questioned both the object of study (namely, the criminal) and the subject (the investigator). By transferring scientific ideas and methods from the natural and social science into police work and judicial processes, Gross’s study of crime merged biological and social perspectives. This meant the categories of deviancy were attached to foreignness and social difference, migration and effects of urban life. His epistemology was underlined by social Darwinism, and his forensics, far from being an objective study, advocated what is today known as racial profiling.

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Mimi Sheller and Gijs Mom

city.” Focusing on the secondary movement of refugees, they demonstrate a blurring of the categories of “refugee” and “migrant,” which overspills the efforts of policy makers to define these as two rigidly separate legal categories. They argue, “This

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Kudzai Matereke

’s temporal structure conceives political modernity as “first in the West, and then elsewhere.” 2 Colonization was a moment when traditions, genealogies, and conceptual categories that “bear the burden of European thought and history” incorporated the

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Introduction

Print Culture, Mobility, and The Pacific, 1920–1950

Victoria Kuttainen and Susann Liebich

of the middlebrow is well suited for investigations of the confluence of travel, mobility, and print culture between 1920 and 1950. The middlebrow, a cultural category that signaled familiarity with high cultural forms for mass audiences and

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Raili Nugin

patterns of “fairy tale” rurality. “Rural” and “urban” in these accounts are cultural categories that are envisaged in perceiving the space rather than actual physical places, 1 used as meaning-making tools for the surroundings of young people. These

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Cotten Seiler

The diversity of methodologies, theoretical orientations, geographical settings, and disciplinary perspectives in this special issue of Transfers testifies to a dual arrival—that of race as a key category of inquiry in mobility studies, and of

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Mariana C. Françozo

movement of people: displaced persons, refugees, asylum seekers, “legal” and “illegal” migrants are categories that can be used to describe our ancestors, our neighbors, and ourselves at any given time. While I hope that fellow visitors to this recent MEM

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Florian Krobb

penetration of the African interior and the generation of knowledge, or opinion, on the continent (though these two categories were frequently conflated). On the one hand, the circumstances of his death prompted follow-up expeditions that attempted to