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Susan Zimmermann

This study argues that the changing relationship between paid work, unpaid work and paid care work and social services, and the struggle over this relationship and its implications, constituted key factors in shaping the ‘state socialist’ gender regime in Hungary from 1949 to the 1980s. The study is based on a wealth of recent scholarship, original sources and Hungarian research conducted during the state socialist period. It tries to give a balanced and inclusive analysis of key elements of women’s and gender history in the state socialist project of ‘catching-up development’ in a semi-peripheral patriarchal society, pointing to constraints, challenges and results of this project. Due to the complex interaction of a variety of actors and factors impacting on and shaping the state socialist gender regime not all women were affected in the same way by state socialist politics and gender struggles. Women’s status and opportunities, as well as gender relations, differed according to class, ethnicity and economic sector. As a rule, the gender struggle over state socialist family and gender arrangements in Hungary sought to reduce or temper tensions and conflicts by avoiding substantial or direct attack against the privileges of men both within the home and elsewhere.

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Class versus Nation

A History of Richard Turner’s Eclipse and Resurgence

Ian Macqueen

commitment to see nationalism as an epiphenomenon of class interests and a reluctance to accord veracity to nationalist modes of mobilisation. In Turner’s day the powerful African nationalism of the 1950s, represented by the mass action of the African

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“Comrades in Battle”

Women Workers and the 1906 Finnish Suffrage Victory

Eric Blanc

’s organizations supported wealth qualifications for the vote until the end of 1905. Decades before the emergence of theorizations of “intersectionality,” Finnish socialists simultaneously fought gender, national, and class domination. Most Western historians have

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Raymond Suttner

Non-racialism is examined in relation to the concepts of race, generic humanism and universalism in order to establish conditions under which non-racialism can be implemented as an emancipatory concept. Denial of the salience or even the existence of the concept 'race' and also tendencies to organise on the basis of race essentialism are examined. It is accepted that race does not exist at an ontological level, in that it is not required for the constitution of the human subject. But race does exist historically and socially. To ignore its existence in addressing the question of non-racialism would be to deny the validity of the experience of racial inequality. At the same time, organisation on the basis of race, while sometimes motivated by strategic considerations, carries the danger of slippage and a permanent racialised identity. The post-1994 period is seen as opening the road to universalism and thus removing the basis for strategic essentialism.

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Stiletto Socialism

Social Class, Dressing Up, and Women's Self-Positioning in Socialist Slovenia

Polona Sitar

Following the communist takeover in Yugoslavia in 1945, a new middle class emerged with sufficient economic and cultural capital to be spent on material goods. This new class was defined primarily in cultural terms and less by socioeconomic

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“Home Is Home No Longer”

Political Struggle in the Domestic Sphere in Postarmistice Hungary, 1919-1922

Emily R. Gioielli

to fundamentally restructure, or reconstruct, the class, gender, political, and ethnic relations that shaped people’s daily lives and experiences. This article shows how common people on both the Right and the Left of the political divide interpreted

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Masculinity on Stage

Dueling in the Greek Capital, 1870–1918

Dimitra Vassiliadou

manifestation. The duel, from the second half of the nineteenth century to its decline sometime within the first third of the twentieth century, was defined as a modern practice conveying particular middle-class characteristics. 1 Following recent trends in the

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Crossing Boundaries

The Case of Wanda Wasilewska and Polish Communism

Agnieszka Mrozik

into the process of shaping the identity of a communist. It points to moments of transcending multiple borders: those of gender, nationality, and social class—a gesture seen by her as “rejecting superstition” or “freeing oneself from shibboleth.” 10 It

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“Maternal Impressions”

Disability Memoirs in Socialist Poland

Natalia Pamula

hear, which, ultimately, did not affect him. Sport enabled him to “transcend impairment” 46 and granted him first-class citizenship. Success in sport, similarly to reading lips, contributed to the symbolic erasure of his disability. Domańska

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Nationalism and Internationalism Reconciled

British Concepts for a New World Order during and after the World Wars

Antero Holmila and Pasi Ihalainen

force of the world will not suffice, … the physical force of the world shall.” 52 Labour MPs did their best to reconcile League internationalism, national sovereignty, and the promotion of the working-class cause. Labour internationalism focused on the