This study argues that the changing relationship between paid work, unpaid work and paid care work and social services, and the struggle over this relationship and its implications, constituted key factors in shaping the ‘state socialist’ gender regime in Hungary from 1949 to the 1980s. The study is based on a wealth of recent scholarship, original sources and Hungarian research conducted during the state socialist period. It tries to give a balanced and inclusive analysis of key elements of women’s and gender history in the state socialist project of ‘catching-up development’ in a semi-peripheral patriarchal society, pointing to constraints, challenges and results of this project. Due to the complex interaction of a variety of actors and factors impacting on and shaping the state socialist gender regime not all women were affected in the same way by state socialist politics and gender struggles. Women’s status and opportunities, as well as gender relations, differed according to class, ethnicity and economic sector. As a rule, the gender struggle over state socialist family and gender arrangements in Hungary sought to reduce or temper tensions and conflicts by avoiding substantial or direct attack against the privileges of men both within the home and elsewhere.
Women Workers and the 1906 Finnish Suffrage Victory
’s organizations supported wealth qualifications for the vote until the end of 1905. Decades before the emergence of theorizations of “intersectionality,” Finnish socialists simultaneously fought gender, national, and class domination. Most Western historians have
Social Class, Dressing Up, and Women's Self-Positioning in Socialist Slovenia
Following the communist takeover in Yugoslavia in 1945, a new middle class emerged with sufficient economic and cultural capital to be spent on material goods. This new class was defined primarily in cultural terms and less by socioeconomic
Political Struggle in the Domestic Sphere in Postarmistice Hungary, 1919-1922
Emily R. Gioielli
to fundamentally restructure, or reconstruct, the class, gender, political, and ethnic relations that shaped people’s daily lives and experiences. This article shows how common people on both the Right and the Left of the political divide interpreted
Dueling in the Greek Capital, 1870–1918
manifestation. The duel, from the second half of the nineteenth century to its decline sometime within the first third of the twentieth century, was defined as a modern practice conveying particular middle-class characteristics. 1 Following recent trends in the
The Case of Wanda Wasilewska and Polish Communism
into the process of shaping the identity of a communist. It points to moments of transcending multiple borders: those of gender, nationality, and social class—a gesture seen by her as “rejecting superstition” or “freeing oneself from shibboleth.” 10 It
Disability Memoirs in Socialist Poland
hear, which, ultimately, did not affect him. Sport enabled him to “transcend impairment” 46 and granted him first-class citizenship. Success in sport, similarly to reading lips, contributed to the symbolic erasure of his disability. Domańska
Elif Mahir Metinsoy
civilians on the home front, were mostly lower-class and poor in Russia, Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. War was a catalyst for their poverty and deteriorated their already bad living conditions. Furthermore, women whose male relatives
Krassimira Daskalova and Karen Offen
Sources translated and discussed: Vela Blagoeva, “Klasovo suznanie i feminism” (Class consciousness and feminism), Zhenski trud (Women’s labor) 1, no. 2 (1904–1905): 1–2; [Ana Karima], “Nie” (We), Ravnopravie (Equal rights) 1, no. 1 (November 1908): 1–2; [A. Karima], “Vnasiame li nie raztseplenie” (Do we divide the Union?) Ravnopravie 1, no. 3 (1908): 1–2.
East and West
Ann Taylor Allen, Women in Twentieth-Century Europe, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, 208 pp., $28.95 (pb), ISBN 1-4039-9374-2.
Efi Avdela, Le genre entre classe et nation. Essais d’historiographie grecque (Gender between class and nation. Essays on Greek historiography), Paris: Syllepse, 2006, 205 pp., €20.00 (pb), ISBN 2-84950-045-3.
Françoise Thébaud, Ecrire l’histoire des femmes et du genre (Writing women’s and gender history), Lyon: ENS Editions, 2007, 312 pp., €24.00 (pb), ISBN 978-2-84788-093-9.