This article considers the emergence of pan-European discourse and the creation of transnational networks by the intellectual extreme Right during the interwar and occupation years. Through a close reading of the essays, speeches, and texts of French fascist intellectuals Abel Bonnard, Alphonse de Châteaubriant, and Pierre Drieu la Rochelle, the author contends that it was during the interwar and wartime decades that the French extreme Right transitioned from its traditional ultranationalism to a new concept of French national identity as European identity. More importantly, these three leading fascist intellectuals worked to distinguish their concept of European federation and transnational cultural exchange as anterior to and independent of submission to Nazi Germany. It was, therefore, in the discourse and the transnational socio-professional networks of the interwar period that we can find the foundation for the new language of Europeanism that became ubiquitous among the postwar Eurofascists and the Nouvelle Droite today.
The Transition from Ultranationalism to Pan-Europeanism by the Interwar French Fascist Right
Comics, Memory, and Cultural Representations of 17 October 1961
obfuscation of the events by the French state has led individuals and groups to seek alternative routes for recognition. This article will explore one of these alternative routes: Octobre noir , a comic book collaboration between writer Didier Daeninckx and
Histories from Below
Megan Koreman, The Expectation of Justice: France, 1944-1946 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999).
Lynne Taylor, Between Resistance and Collaboration: Popular Protest in Northern France, 1940-45 (New York: St. Martin’s Press [London: MacMillan], 2000).
Mémoires of Jacques Chirac, en collaboration avec Jean-Luc Barré - Tome 1, Chaque pas doit être un but (Paris: Éditions Nil, 2009) - Tome 2, Le Temps présidentiel (Paris: Éditions Nil, 2011)
Perspectives et prospectives
This article describes the results developed in the recently published La Civilisation du journal, histoire culturelle et littéraire de la presse (ed. Dominique Kalifa, Philippe Régnier, Marie-Ève Thérenty, and Alain Vaillant), a collaboration between historians and literary scholars working together for eight years to write a synthesis about the history of the French press during the nineteenth century. It offers a comprehensive encyclopedia of journalism, the genres and forms of the periodical press, the principal figures of nineteenth-century French journalism, and the modern culture of the press. The article describes the different projects between history and literature that could be developed after this project. This kind of methodology should be extended to the relations between press and literature during the twentieth century, to women's journalism and to the globalization of the media during the nineteenth century. These projects could be developed with the help of the website Médias19.
Historiography, Memory, and the Evolution of Le Silence de la mer, 1942-2012
Among the best-selling French literary works of the twentieth century, Vercors' novella has enjoyed an exceptionally rich afterlife thanks to numerous print editions as well as several influential stage and screen adaptations: Jean-Pierre Melville's 1947 feature film, Jean Mercure's 1949 play, Vercors' own 1978 theatrical rendering, and a 2004 television movie written by Anne Giafferi and directed by Pierre Boutron. Taking a comparative approach that weighs the aesthetic and ideological priorities of these authors and directors alongside shifts in historiography and French political culture, this article traces the evolution of Le Silence de la mer as a contested site of national memory and a means of negotiating the ethically-charged concepts of collaboration and resistance.
Entre collaboration, opportunisme et « nécessité de vivre »
Amid severe shortages of raw materials, labor, and transportation, companies in occupied France (1940–1944) sought alternative paths to what is commonly called “economic collaboration.” They worked to find substitute supplies, convert to new product lines, alter their manufacturing methods, and even adapt to the black market. But few businesses could avoid the question of whether to provide goods and services to the occupier. The opportunities to do so were widespread, though they varied according to occupation, economic branch, and the passage of time during the Occupation. The German occupiers thus benefited from the French economy. With decisive help from the Vichy regime, the occupiers managed to force, induce, or entice French enterprises into their war economy—be they large industries formerly mobilized for French national defense, small and medium-sized firms, or agricultural producers.
The Vichy Economy
Alya Aglan, Michel Margairaz, and Philippe Verheyde, eds., La Caisse de dépôts et consignations, la Seconde Guerre mondiale et le XXe siècle (Paris: Albin Michel, 2003).
Olivier Dard, Jean-Claude Daumas, and François Marcot, eds., L’Occupation, l’État français et les entreprises (Paris: Association pour le développement de l’histoire économique, 2000).
Jean-Marc Dreyfus, Pillages sur ordonnances: Aryanisation et restitution des banques en France 1940-1953 (Paris: Fayard, 2003).
Hervé Joly, ed., Faire l’histoire des entreprises sous l’Occupation: Les acteurs économiques et leurs archives (Paris: Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques, 2004).
Hervé Joly, ed., Les Comités d’organisation et l’économie dirigée du régime de Vichy: Actes du colloque international, 3-4 avril 2003 (Caen: Centre de recherche d’histoire quantitative, 2004).
Hervé Joly, ed., Les Archives des entreprises sous l’Occupation: Conservation, accessibilité et apport (Paris: IFRESI [Institut fédératif de recherche sur les économies et les sociétés industrielles], 2005).
Steven L. Kaplan and Philippe Minard, eds., La France, malade du corporatisme? XVIIIe-XXe siècles (Paris: Belin, 2004).
Annie Lacroix-Riz, Industriels et banquiers sous l’Occupation: La collaboration économique avec le Reich et Vichy (Paris: Armand Colin, 1999).
Michel Margairaz, ed., Banques, Banque de France et Seconde Guerre mondiale (Paris: Albin Michel, 2002).
Paul Sanders, Histoire du marché noir 1940-1946 (Paris: Perrin, 2001).
Philippe Verheyde, Les Mauvais Comptes de Vichy: L’aryanisation des entreprises juives (Paris: Perrin, 1999).
The Impact of French Internment on the Pacifist Convictions and Literary Imagination of Lion Feuchtwanger
Nicole Dombrowski Risser
). Spun from Christopher Marlowe’s original Elizabethan drama of the same name, Edward II was Feuchtwanger’s first serious collaboration with the upand-coming young playwright, Bertholt Brecht. 10 Scholar Faith Norris credits their partnership on
digitalisation des médias s’accompagnent aussi d’un éclatement des rédactions et d’une montée en puissance du statut d’auteur pour les journalistes. La nécessité où se trouvent les journalistes de multiplier les collaborations, de passer d’un support à un autre