defining and measuring ES, and how decisions about measurement may result in specific types of outcomes, such as commodification. Attention to measurement, standards, and indicators has grown in the larger social science literature, often emerging out of
Courtney Carothers and Catherine Chambers
This article draws on directed ethnographic research and a review of literature to explore how the commodification of fishing rights discursively and materially remakes human-marine relationships across diverse regions. It traces the history of dominant economic theories that promote the privatization of fishing access for maximizing potential pro ts. It describes more recent discursive trends that link the ecological health of the world's oceans and their fisheries to widespread privatization. Together, these economic and environmental discourses have enrolled a broad set of increasingly vocal and powerful privatization proponents. The article provides specific examples of how nature-society relationships among people, oceans, and sh are remade as privatization policies take root in fishery systems. We conclude with an overview of several strategies of resistance. Across the world there is evidence of alternative discourses, economic logics, and cultures of fishing resistant to privatization processes, the assumptions that underlie them, and the social transitions they often generate.
A Literature Review
This literature review of biomimicry and related models of treating nature as a meta-resource on a mega-scale integrates concepts of resources and abundance. Biomimicry, which lies at the intersection of biosciences and industrial design, is a praxis for drawing on designs and processes found in nature and using them as inspirational sources for technologies. Environmental anthropology often focuses on processes such as extraction and commodification that position nature as governed by an economy of scarcity with its existential state characterized by attenuation. The paradigm of biomimicry, on the other hand, construes nature as an infinitely renewable and generative mega-resource and meta-resource, one that is governable by an economy of abundance rather than scarcity. This literature review analyzes intellectual and epistemological trends and frameworks that have served as precursors to and have emerged around biomimicry across disciplines that treat the paradigm of biomimicry as a highly variable epistemological object.
Hunting is an important basis for conservation, but hunters are surprisingly scarce in global networks of environmental advocacy and governance, and hunting management systems are not given the attention they should receive. This article reveals the messages promoted by hunting advocates through an analysis of museum representations and interviews in order to understand the limitations of and basis upon which further integration of hunters into conservation advocacy circles worldwide could occur. Museums feature representations that reflect the cultural elucidations of their host organization. This article will show how the International Wildlife Museum—maintained by Safari Club International—produces messages of the inseparability of humans from nature, purposive management of nature, dependence upon global capitalism and predation, and the neutrality of scientific knowledge. Through these messages a narrative space for the management of wildlife is produced that attempts to unite the commodification and conservation of nature, namely, “sustainable hunting”. This article concludes by identifying contradictions among the messages of sustainable hunting that may limit hunting advocates' ability to work with other stakeholders to further improve hunting management systems.
Lessons from Madrid
Marian Simon-Rojo, Inés Morales Bernardos, and Jon Sanz Landaluze
precarious and small-scale; it has a similar culture of cooperation and solidarity; it is characterized by a commitment to agroecological principles; and it is generally opposed to the commodification of food. As we will demonstrate, new urban farming creates
. This confusion, as McElwee observes, is difficult to reconcile with the “critiques that the very concept of ES may be a fast and slippery slope to commodification of everything in nature.” The process of producing the calculations may well tolerate more
Karen Hébert, Joshua Mullenite, Alka Sabharwal, David Kneas, Irena Leisbet Ceridwen Connon, Peter van Dommelen, Cameron Hu, Brittney Hammons, and Natasha Zaretsky
some of its interventions, especially in Chile, South Africa, and Iraq. Ultimately, Piper attempts to create a picture of “water marketing” within privatization and commodification, suggesting it is a generally excluded yet important concept to these
Indigeneity, Ontology, and Hybridity in Settler Colonialism
Paul Berne Burow, Samara Brock, and Michael R. Dove
control of land in settler state contexts today. The story of primary accumulation entails not only land being taken away but also its commodification ( Polanyi 1944 ). Indeed, the juridical structures of dispossession (land’s commodification and
market and conceptual categories and recommending the expansion of the commodification of the environment rather than its reduction or dissolution. In other words, environmental economics does not recognize the inherently contradictory nature of reducing
Sanne van der Hout and Martin Drenthen
of the Dutch metagenomics community saw no harm in the commodification of nature that the term signifies, others had difficulties with the reduction of nature to a reservoir to be exploited ( Van der Hout 2014 ). 4 Examples of other movies in this