This article investigates the effects of films on an audience, using an interdisciplinary empirical approach connecting film analysis and psychophysiological measurement. It discusses the animated short film Father and Daughter (2000) directed by Michael Dudok de Wit. The features of the film that are relevant to the reception process, the so-called moments of narrative impact, are determined on the basis of Wuss's analytical film model. The model postulates that films can be described as a combination of different kinds of narrative structures that predetermine the reception, which is conceptualized as a process of problem solving. This article defines five moments of narrative impact. Three of these moments establish the main conflict and its possible solution while the other two combine reoccurring motives, the so-called topic lines. Heart rate and skin conductance reactions were examined for thirty participants. The results of heart rate measurements demonstrate a clear significance for a combination of topic lines. The establishment of the central conflict also evokes significant reactions.
Norman N. Holland
Metafictions tell stories in which the physical medium of the story becomes part of the story as, classically, in Tristram Shandy or Don Quixote. In our times, both metafiction and metafilm have proliferated. Examples of metafilm include Buster Keaton's Sherlock Jr., Woody Allen's Purple Rose of Cairo, Alejandro Amenábar's Abre los Ojos, Ingmar Bergman's Persona, the Marx Brothers' Horse Feathers and, in particular, Spike Jonze's Adaptation. In my experience and that of others, metafilmic movies have a peculiarly disconcerting effect, sometimes arousing fear, sometimes seeming comic. Why? Metafilms play tricks on the levels and kinds of our belief (or our suspension of disbelief). To explain the effect, we need to understand how our brains are functioning when we are, as we say, "absorbed" in a film. The answer lies in the fact that reality testing depends on activity in the motor regions of the frontal cortex. But in experiencing the arts, we are not moving or even planning to move. As a result, as Richard Gerrig's experiments show, we momentarily believe (or suspend disbelief in) the film we are perceiving. Metafilm, however, introduces another, more real reality, the physical medium of the film. Metafilm thus sends conflicting messages to the brain about moving. The result is what Freud called "a signal of anxiety." If the metafilmic effect is brief, we laugh. If it persists over time, it can arouse anxiety.
Edited by Stephen Prince
map this conceptual framework onto the filmic narratives and character conflicts. Doing so, they suggest that the Kleinian framework helps to explicate the power and the pull that these narratives have exerted for viewers. Awards for “best picture” or
internationally, as a conflict based on race; another is the critiques of US militarism/imperialism in the 1960s. Is the classical phase really just one version of the genre available at every historical point? And parody as well? Do actual historical audiences
negatively valenced affect that we find aversive and seek to shift, how do we come to find narrative simulations of this process pleasurable? We may need to feel some exertion in resolving a cognitive contraposition (two or more conflicting thoughts
Triangulation and Third Culture Debates
relationship between emotions, affects, and human motorics. The project lasted for seven years, from 1923 to 1930, and its results were published in the United States in 1932 as The Nature of Human Conflict, or, Emotion, Conflict, and Will: An Objective Study
Toland’s use of mirrors to represent the conflicted psychology of characters Toland was using mirrors as a consistent visual motif, representing characters’ internal conflicts, from 1931. In Tonight or Never , Nella (Gloria Swanson) is torn between her
Brendan Rooney, Hanna Kubicka, Carl Plantinga, James Kendrick, and Johannes Riis
larger, television-specific study. Ultimately, she seeks to offer an account of what she describes as “the moral psychology of fiction,” an intriguing and potent concept which promises to explore the curious conflict of desires highlighted by Currie (xiii
James E. Cutting
actors and action sequences, better than I like movie B, even though the latter has better plot structure and computer graphics. Collative variables are evaluative. Examples include complexity, novelty, conflict, uncertainty, suprisingness, and
richest moment in the scene: Crawford skillfully registers Sadie's conflicting emotions when she sees that the man she loves is not there. As Flo Leibowitz (1996) has explained, women's films such as Sadie McKee depict scenes of loss to appeal to