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Cormac Ó Beaglaoich, Mark Kiss, Clíodhna Ní Bheaglaoich, and Todd G. Morrison

Gender role conflict (GRC), defined as a “psychological state in which socialized gender roles have negative consequences for the person or others” ( O’Neil 2015: 42 ), prevents individuals from realizing their full potential as human beings

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Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescents

Correlates with Masculinity Ideology

Chris Blazina, Maribel A. Cordova, Stewart Pisecco, and Anna G. Settle

This study investigated the Gender Role Conflict Scale-Adolescent Version (GRCS-A) and its relationship with the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS), the measure from which it was adapted. Significant correlations between the adult and adolescent versions provided support for the concurrent validity of the GRCS-A. Further analyses revealed that two other measures of male masculinity, the Adolescent Masculinity Ideology in Relationships Scale (AMIRS) and Male Role Attitudes Scale (MRAS), are also significantly related to the GRCS-A. Implications for future research and clinical use are discussed.

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Because I am a Girl

In the Shadow of War

Nikki van der Gaag, Sarah Henriks, and Feyi Rodway

Conflict affects girls differently from boys—their rights are ignored, their responsibilities changed, and their lives altered forever by war. Girls face discrimination on at least two counts: because they are young and because they are female. We focus here on the changing nature of war and conflict and what this means for girls' health, economic well-being, physical security and protection, and also for their resilience and empowerment. We examine how girls are uniquely affected by, and respond to, conflict, its build-up and its aftermath. We assess the role of the institutions that have a duty to protect and support girls in conflict-affected states, and explore the reasons why policy actors do not take girls into account in their responses to violent conflict. We outline recommendations for action in terms of girls' education, harnessing girls' resilience and encouraging their empowerment.

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Adolescent Girls with Disabilities in Humanitarian Settings

“I Am Not ‘Worthless’—I Am a Girl with a Lot to Share and Offer”

Emma Pearce, Kathryn Paik, and Omar J. Robles

Introduction Humanitarian crises are on the rise, with conflicts and natural disasters contributing to the greatest forced displacement of people since World War II. In 2014, over 59 million were displaced worldwide because of persecution, conflict

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Sealing the Past, Facing the Future

An Evaluation of a Program to Support the Reintegration of Girls and Young Women Formerly Associated with Armed Groups and Forces in Sierra Leone

Alastair Ager, Lindsay Stark, Joanna Olsen, Mike Wessells, and Neil Boothby

This paper reports on an evaluation of a program in Sierra Leone that sought to support the community reintegration of young women and girls formerly associated with armed groups and forces. In the absence of baseline data, we used locally-derived indicators of reintegration and village timelines to conduct a retrospective cohort study of the progress of 142 girls and young women towards achievement of community reintegration following their experience of abduction. Although girls and young women in both intervention and comparison communities had made progress towards integration, the intervention was associated with improved mental health outcomes and higher ratings on some aspects of marriage quality. For those who had found the greatest challenges in reintegrating, the intervention additionally appeared to support community acceptance and inclusion in women's bondo activities.

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A Tribute to Jackie

Trainer, Researcher and Scholar

Lyndsay Bird

Jackie Kirk’s death is an unspeakable loss to all of us, to the field of education and to the communities who will continue to benefit from her tremendous intellectual and personal contributions. We at UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) continue to honour her memory through our commitment to education for children and communities aff ected by conflict.

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Risky Environments

Girlhood in a Post-conflict Society

Donna Sharkey

Post-conflict settings often contain high levels of risk for war-affected girls, yet these same settings also support hope for them. In such contexts, what risks exist for girls and how do they construct responses to these risks? is article is based on an ethnographic study which included a cohort of fifteen girls who had been caught up in the decade-long war in Sierra Leone, a war noted for its gender-based viciousness. Having lived through horrific situations, a major task of these girls has been to make meaning of, and respond to, the risks existing within their post-conflict environments. Following an analysis of the current context of the lives of these girls, this article examines the risks the girls face in their daily lives and the strategies they employ as strength-based responses to these risks.

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Performing Masculinity

Adolescent African American Boys' Response to Gender Scripting

Lionel C. Howard

This article focuses on the ways in which a select group of adolescent African American males respond to gender scripts. Drawing on interview and focus group data, the article describes four different responses to messages they receive from peers and significant adults about socio-culturally appropriate behaviors and characteristics of masculinity: 1) adapting or modifying their presentations of self, 2) internalizing ascribed gender scripts, 3) resisting, and 4) remaining conflicted about an appropriate response. Narratives highlight the complexity of gender identity development and active participation of African American boys in the construction of a masculine identity that feels most authentic, as well as the role of agents of socialization on identity.

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Claudia Mitchell and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh

In this, our second issue of Girlhood Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal (GHS), we continue our work out of respect for, and in memory of, our founding co-editor, Jackie Kirk, who was killed in Afghanistan earlier in 2008 while she was carrying out her work in girls’ education in conflict zones. We carry on with the belief that we all shared from the beginning about the need to respect girls, to study girl culture on its own terms and to keep in mind the importance of further developing the interdisciplinary field of girlhood studies.

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Sight Unseen

Re-viewing Images of Girls' Education

Cathryn Magno and Jackie Kirk

In this article we discuss the ways in which images of girls are understood to represent broader international development discourses related to girls' education. This piece was originally written for the United Nations Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI), conceived with UNICEF out of their interest in determining whether images they produce accurately represent policies and processes they engage in on behalf of girls' education; that report was UNICEF's contribution to the UNGEI partnership. The premise that visual analysis contributes to the study of girlhood was reified in this study which revealed the many deep and sometimes conflicting meanings that diverse viewers place on images.