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Eve Rachele Sanders

The letter was the single most widely used property in Tudor-Stuart plays. In that memorable stage direction from The Spanish Tragedy, the letter is an instrumental device in the plot. It provides Hieronimo, the central protagonist of the revenge tragedy, with targets for revenge by identifying his son’s killers by name. However, the letter also is a sign for the interior state of mind of its writer, the beautiful Bel-imperia, in issuing a call for reprisal. It is a materialisation of what immaterial passions ultimately drive the action: desire, loss, and rage. Red ink. Blood signifies the authenticity of the words on the page. They come, literally, from Bel-imperia’s heart. And yet, the macabre medium of the message brings Hieronimo to see in it fatal implications for himself. ‘Hieronimo, beware’, he says to himself, ‘thou art betrayed, / And to entrap thy life this train is laid’. (Indeed, in another revenge tragedy, Bussy D’Ambois, an adulterous wife is forced at knifepoint to lay a snare for her lover with that very deception of a letter inscribed in her blood). This single moment in Thomas Kyd’s tragedy, Hieronimo’s reception of Bel-imperia’s ‘bloody writ’, captures the complex of attitudes that governed the circulation of letters as stage properties.

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John of Lancaster’s Negotiation with the Rebels in 2 Henry IV

Fifteenth-Century Northern England as Sixteenth-Century Ireland

Jane Yeang Chui Wong

representatives and the Irish confederacy as a result of a long history of broken promises, dissimulation and outright deception. In his letter of submission, O’Neill admits that he has repeatedly broken oaths of loyalty to the crown. Nonetheless, he hopes that

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Where Character Is King

Gregory Doran’s Henriad

Alice Dailey

deception and the calculated theatricality with which he managed their arrest. The production’s focus on Henry’s immediate, in-the-now psychological process constituted a basic disparity with how the play otherwise made meaning and character structurally and

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John Drakakis

merchant re-appears as part of a military tactic; Nestor is worried how the choice of an opponent to face Hector will reflect on the Greeks’ judgement, but Ulysses’s strategy reveals the sophistication, and the capacity for deception that inheres in the act

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Shakespeare and War

Honour at the Stake

Patrick Gray

Other Virgil: Pity and Imperium in Titus Andronicus’, Shakespeare Survey 69 (2016): 30–45. 32 On Shakespeare’s soliloquies as studies in self-deception, see Patrick Gray, ‘Choosing between Shame and Guilt: Macbeth, Othello, Hamlet, Lear’, in

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Jonathan Webber

Exactly what does Jean-Paul Sartre mean when he describes some conscious awareness as ‘non-thetic’? He does not explicitly say. Yet this phrase, sprinkled liberally throughout his early philosophical works, is germane to some of the distinctive and fundamental theories of Sartrean existentialism. My aim in this paper is to examine the concept in terms of the role that Sartre claims it plays in bad faith (mauvaise foi), the deliberate and motivated project of refusing to face or consider the consequences of some fact or facts. I will argue that non-thetic awareness could play the role Sartre ascribes to it in bad faith only if it is understood as being equivalent to the nonconceptual representational content currently discussed in anglophone philosophy of mind. I will proceed by first providing an initial rough characterisation of ‘non-thetic’ awareness through a discussion of the philosophical background to Sartre’s term, then showing how this rough characterisation needs to be refined in order that bad faith may evade the two paradoxes of self-deception, next drawing the distinction between conceptual and nonconceptual content, and then arguing that non-thetic awareness must be construed as nonconceptual content. This clarification of one of the most pervasive and one of the most obscure concepts in Sartrean existentialism will have the additional ramifications that Sartre’s theory of consciousness in general must be understood as involving both conceptual and nonconceptual structures and that his discussion of the interplay of these structures can provide innovative and valuable contributions to the debates over the role of conceptual and nonconceptual contents in perception and action currently raging in anglophone discussions of mind.

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Ronald E. Santoni

‘character’; a project of running away from our freedom; of ‘denying our freedom over our character’, favouring ‘fixed nature’ over ‘freedom.’ In short, it is a project of self-deception, or ‘lying to oneself’, as Sartre, following Nietzsche, calls it, but is

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Shadowing Shakespeare

Akira Kurosawa's Kagemusha (1980) and William Shakespeare's English History Plays (c. 1591–98)

Alex Watson

enemies to participate in a performance that confers upon him an enhanced status. 9 Like Shakespeare, Kurosawa draws attention to the extent to which royal power is maintained via deception. For instance, when Nobukada first shows the double Shingen

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‘Double Sorrow’

The Complexity of Complaint in Chaucer’s Anelida and Arcite and Henryson’s Testament of Cresseid

Jacqueline Tasioulas

interest in truth and lies here, certainly, but that interest engages too with half-truths, with the subtleties of deception, with self-deception, with the ultimate impossibility of knowledge of another’s self, or even of one’s own self. Henryson’s ‘Quha

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Sociality, Seriousness, and Cynicism

A Response to Ronald Santoni on Bad Faith

Jonathan Webber

Project of Bad Faith Sartre famously contends that bad faith is a form of self-deception but cannot be ‘a cynical lie’ ( BN , 113). He argues that ‘if I deliberately and cynically attempt to lie to myself, I must completely fail in this undertaking