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Ramin Jahanbegloo

The article deals with Mohandas K. Gandhi's theory of democracy and its related civic practices. It indicates the relation between Gandhi's idea of civic duty and his idea of democracy, and argues that few would dispute that Gandhi was one of the most original and transformative thinkers of democracy. The article maintains that among his many notable contributions, Gandhi is rightly credited with emphasizing on the ideas of citizenship duty, truth in politics, genuine self-rule, and ethically enlightened democracy. In addition to advocating self-sustaining villages and communal cooperation, Gandhi developed an idea of non-liberal democracy reducing individualism, economic greed, and laissez-faire by insisting on a duty oriented and spiritually empowered participative democracy. Nearly seven decades after his death, Gandhi stands as one of the most significant and relevant non-Western theorist of democracy.

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Introduction

Citizenship in Europe after World War II—the Challenges of Migration and European Integration

Claudia Wiesner and Anna Björk

The concept of citizenship in Europe after World War II faces two major challenges: migration and European integration. This introduction precedes a group of articles examining debates and law-making processes related to the concept of citizenship in Europe after World War II. The introduction sketches the historical development of citizenship in European representative democracies, taking into account four basic dimensions (access to citizenship, citizenship rights, citizenship duties, and the active content of citizenship) for analyzing changes in the concept of citizenship.

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Elizabeth C. Macknight

Gender and class informed the attitudes of French noblemen toward military training and an army career in the France of the early Third Republic. Honor for the male aristocracy was considered to be “in the blood” and still very closely bound to ancient military virtues of duty, bravery, and sacrifice. Boys raised in noble families were conditioned to value martial honor—and to seek to embody it—well before entering prestigious military academies in adolescence. Ancestral tradition created pressure on noblemen to serve with distinction in the army and, by doing so, to conform to an ideal of military manhood. This strained some noblemen's relationships with male relatives and the cross-generational imperative to uphold the warrior ethos led many to their death on the battlefield.

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Elizabeth Macknight, Brian Newsome, and Vivian Berghahn

-editor. She brought new scholars, such as Elizabeth Macknight, onto the editorial board. And she shepherded HR/RH into the fold of Berghahn Books. In addition to managing “general editorial duties”—three words that only begin to convey the time and energy

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Editorial

A Message from Senior Editor Linda E. Mitchell

Edited by Linda E. Mitchell

joined the Editorial Board of the journal in 2002, became a coeditor (with Dan Gordon) in 2004, and assumed the duties of senior editor in 2006. In the 16 years of my direct involvement with HR/RH , I acted as guest editor for several special issues

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Tolerating the Conditionally Tolerant

The Uneasy Case of Salvation Religions

William A. Edmundson

, one could save another from eternal damnation, it would be callous not to try. Unsurprisingly, salvation religions tend to impose a positive duty on believers to actively recruit nonbelievers. “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar's” was never meant to

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Daniel Lord Smail

opinion in France at the time. But even so, the anecdote is a reminder that once upon a time, historians celebrated the idea of progress and understood it as their duty to convey the virtues of Western civilization to their students and readers. Historians

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Barbara Prainsack

cause. Whereas charity could emerge from a moral or religious duty on the side of those who are rich to give to the poor because they are different, within solidarity, support emerges across all societal and economic differences due to the things

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Art to Table

The Power of Aesthetics in Women’s Cookbooks of the Belle Époque

Samantha Presnal

, invoking the former to signal the work in the kitchen and the latter to suggest the duties in the dining room. For the first time, these responsibilities were conflated, and one cannot be certain if the author is instructing the cook, the housewife, or one

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“To take a wyf”

Marriage, Status, and Moral Conduct in “The Merchant’s Tale”

Natalie Hanna

access to the space. Thus, when he finally uses the term “wyf” to directly refer to her, and does so repeatedly, it is to remind her of her role and duty to serve him as his spouse. However, now that Januarie is blind he is also at his weakest point