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Kjetil Børhaug

Declining adolescent political participation means that political education has become a pressing public and political issue. In response, much attention is being paid to the way in which political education offers meaningful reasons for individual political participation. Critical textbook analysis may help us understand how political education affects participation. To what extent do textbooks explicitly present justifications for political participation? What kinds of justification are offered? This article analyzes Norwegian social studies textbooks, and concludes that justifications of adolescent political participation are central. Justifications include the individual pursuit of preferences, individual duty in a "contract" with the state, and identities. However, these justifications are also questionable, for they are generally either individualistic or avoid real political movements.

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Beyond the Body Count

Field Notes as First Responder Witness Accounts

Patricia Krueger-Henney

I position critical ethnographic researcher field notes as an opportunity to document the physical and ideological violence that white settler states and institutions on the school-prison nexus inflict on the lives of girls of color generally and Black girls specifically. By drawing on my own field notes, I argue that critical social science researchers have an ethical duty to move their inquiries beyond conventions of settler colonial empirical science when they are wanting to create knowledges that transcend traditions of body counts and classification systems of human lives. As first responders to the social emergencies in girls’ lives, researchers can make palpable spatialization of institutionalized forms of settler epistemologies to convey more girl-centered ways of speaking against quantifiable hierarchies of human life.

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Because I am a Girl

In the Shadow of War

Nikki van der Gaag, Sarah Henriks, and Feyi Rodway

Conflict affects girls differently from boys—their rights are ignored, their responsibilities changed, and their lives altered forever by war. Girls face discrimination on at least two counts: because they are young and because they are female. We focus here on the changing nature of war and conflict and what this means for girls' health, economic well-being, physical security and protection, and also for their resilience and empowerment. We examine how girls are uniquely affected by, and respond to, conflict, its build-up and its aftermath. We assess the role of the institutions that have a duty to protect and support girls in conflict-affected states, and explore the reasons why policy actors do not take girls into account in their responses to violent conflict. We outline recommendations for action in terms of girls' education, harnessing girls' resilience and encouraging their empowerment.

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Nirmala Erevelles

), dharma (pre-ordained duty) and karma (action) combine to place disabled people in a constant quest for cure, redemption, abuse, and neglect. Within this religious-cultural milieu daughters are constructed as parai (Other) needing a dowry in order to

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Contested Citizenship

Public Schooling and Political Changes in Early Nineteenth Century Switzerland

Ingrid Brühwiler

religious and as owing certain inherited duties to society (that is, the church and the secular government). Some textbooks written in the 1840s also reference denominational affiliations and related conflicts that were developing during this period. The

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Jingyi Li

should show to their parents. It is also extended to the living, the dead, and remote ancestors. Relations between juniors and seniors Refers to the social duties that arise from one’s particular situation in relation to others. Each individual is

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Attitude or Age

Girlhood in Renaissance England

Reina Green

syphilis, while her brother is condemned to death for theft. Even as she ignores it, a sense of duty invests Dalila’s girlhood, and this is also apparent in Jacob and Esau (c. 1554), in which a young female servant, Abra, resists her subservient position

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Renée Monchalin and Lisa Monchalin

territory we are currently igniting our inner strengths, duties, and natural positions of leadership and influence. As young Indigenous sisters we find ourselves contributing to this path of reclamation through education. Although it is not easy, we draw on

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Meglio di ieri

Educational Films, National Identity and Citizenship in Italy from 1948 to 1968

Anne Bruch

of “two sides of the same coin”. Figure 4 Is a citizen as free as a bird? In Diritti e doveri (“Rights and Obligations”), Crispolti stressed the fragile balance between individual liberties and collective duties. He explained the right to vote and

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Gianni Barchiesi, Laura T. Di Summa, Joseph G. Kickasola, and Peter Verstraten

interpretive ambiguities. Examining realism in documentary is also a matter of examining the “truth” of documentary. In one of the most original essays in the volume, “The Duties of Documentary in a Post-Truth Society” (93–111), Dirk Eitzen examines