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The Territorialization of Vietnam's Northern Upland Frontier

Migrant Motivations and Misgivings from World War II until Today

Sarah Turner, Thi-Thanh-Hien Pham, and Ngô Thúy Hạnh

. Home provinces of interviewed migrants. Map created by the authors. It remains debatable whether this migration was voluntary (albeit state-sponsored) or somewhat coerced, but “nationalistic duty” certainly appears to have played an important role

Open access

From Ecuador to Elsewhere

The (Re)Configuration of a Transit Country

Soledad Álvarez Velasco

Ecuadorean Organic Law of Human Mobility in January 2017 filled a void by “regulating” the rights of and duties toward migrants and attempting to harmonize migration legislation with the constitution. For the first time, the new legislation explicitly

Open access

When Transit States Pursue Their Own Agenda

Malaysian and Indonesian Responses to Australia's Migration and Border Policies

Antje Missbach and Gerhard Hoffstaedter

employers. 7 Malaysia has acted as a resettlement country for Cham Muslims, for example, but has always termed this an ad-hoc humanitarian gesture, rather than based on international or national law, or national ethical duties. 8 Established in 2002 and

Open access

Laborers, Migrants, Refugees

Managing Belonging, Bodies, and Mobility in (Post)Colonial Kenya and Tanzania

Hanno Brankamp and Patricia Daley

(Squatters) Ordinance of 1918 further entrenched tenant duties of African populations working on European-occupied land and penalized failures to provide labor in accordance with existing legislation. The Employment of Natives Law, which included a series of

Open access

Places of Otherness

Comparing Eastleigh, Nairobi, and Xiaobei, Guangzhou, as Sites of South-South Migration

Neil Carrier and Gordon Mathews

's economy will allow them social mobility find themselves stuck. The Kenyan state does well economically out of Eastleigh: although much trade has its informal side, and some evades the state altogether, revenue from rates, import duty, business permits, and

Free access

A human rights-based approach

A gate to development of African women's land rights?

Karin Tengnäs

The global competition for African land is at a historical peak. Local effects of large-scale land acquisitions depend on multiple factors, but women's rights and livelihoods are generally very fragile due to historical and contemporary injustices. Good land governance is important for turning the land acquisitions into equal and equitable development opportunities. The human rights-based approach promotes good governance by adding strength and legal substance to the principles of participation and inclusion, openness and transparency, accountability and the rule of law, and equality and nondiscrimination. By empowering rights-holders and enhancing duty-bearers' capacity, international development cooperation can lead to wider and more gender-balanced inclusion of civil society in negotiations of large-scale land acquisitions and greater adherence of duty-bearers to the rule of law. This is especially important in African countries with large amounts of land and weak legal and institutional frameworks to protect rights, especially those of women.

Free access

Protection of civilians in a peacekeeping context

Challenges and dilemmas of MONUC/MONUSCO

Christian R. Manahl

“Around Kamanyola in Walungu territory, FARDC soldiers looted property and cattle and gang-raped a lady. When trying to fight off the rapists, two male members of the affected family were killed.” This is a short note from the daily situation report of MONUSCO’s South Kivu office, sent on 10 July 2010. It is one of many similar observations made by the dismayed and overwhelmed peacekeepers of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), whose first priority is the protection of civilians. On another day, or in another duty station, peacekeepers might report about a couple of children being abducted or a family burnt alive in their home by one of the militias roaming the subregion. On a few occasions – in July/August 2010 in Walikale territory in North Kivu, and in January and February 2011 in Fizi territory of South Kivu (see map 1) – the recurrent human rights violations in the DRC reached horrific proportions, with scores of people, including many children, sexually abused. In December 2008 and 2009, hundreds were massacred and several dozen abducted in Haut Uélé district (Province Orientale).

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Nighttime Navigating

Moving a Container Ship through Darkness

Maria Borovnik

external and internal forces that seafarers are passively exposed to. In this article, these interwoven knots in a meshwork of agency in which seafarers are occupied will be explored. During watchkeeping duties at night, or when having to maneuver a ship

Free access


A Timeless Measure of Who We Are?

Elena Isayev

treaties, taxation, and trade duties, which required monitoring and reporting. Such activities were conducted in a world with no national borders, and no regional maps-to-scale on which they could be drawn. That is not to say that there was not a persistent

Free access

Re/Making Immigration Policy through Practice

How Social Workers Influence What It Means to Be a Refused Asylum Seeker

Kathryn Tomko Dennler

, emphasis in the original). Furthermore, if there is, in the eyes of the local authority or UKBA, no barrier to return, social services departments can discharge their duty to a refused asylum seeker in their catchment area by offering a plane ticket home