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To Bear Witness After the Era of the Witness

The Projects of Christophe Boltanski and Ivan Jablonka

Donald Reid

in France. He grew up and lives today in what he calls a society marked by a memory culture in which one is asked to reflect on and pay homage to the victims of the Holocaust. 3 But, he recognizes, this “duty to remember” can be stifling, a matter of

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Yamini Narayanan

The fundamental sustainability tension may be said to lie in reconciling want and greed. This places the human self or the human soul as a moral battleground where desire and duty constantly attempt to triumph over each other. However, desire must be understood and integrated as part of a fully self-conscious human self in order to enable a consistent and unwavering performance of duty. In this article, I propose the Hindu notion of the purusharthas, or the fourfold path to self-actualization, as one illustrative example of a green telos. The purusharthas prescribe a path comprising of material and sensuous experience, in obedience to dharma or duty, such that moksha or a state of complete self-awareness may be achieved. I suggest that the stage of dharma is thus where the most profitable connections between Hinduism and sustainable development might be made.

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Jochen Maurer and Gerhard Sälter

The border guards were what made the Berlin Wall both function and lethal. Without them, people could escape nearly without any hindrance. Thus, it is crucial to understand the role of the border guards, who they were, and how they were prepared for their duty. They had a double task: preventing citizens, in most cases respectable and unarmed, from fleeing; and serving as an initial front-line defense in case of war. The military aspect of their mission, however, remained hypothetical, whereas preventing escapes became their daily duty. The duplicity of their task, with the military aspect determining armament, training, and structure no doubt increased the number of fatalities at the border.

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Flying above Bloodshed

Performative Protest in the Scared City of Damascus

Ziad Adwan

the number is sufficient (normally around a hundred), they choose a neighborhood and the slogans, make sure that there are safe exits, and distribute the duties. Flying demonstrators scatter in a neighborhood, divided into three groups. The first does

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A State of Force

The Repressive Policing of Contention in Queensland under Frederic Urquhart

Paul Bleakley

imperial armed forces to supplement police action supports the suggestion that police were expected to fulfill a duty that was beyond the scope of traditional law enforcement ( Murphy 1975 ). Urquhart, the Kalkadoon, and the Role of the Native Police During

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The Silent Spring

Why Pro-democracy Activity Was Avoided in Gulf Nations during the Arab Spring

Charles Mitchell, Juliet Dinkha, and Aya Abdulhamid

of group unity or a strong sense of duty to participate, the perception that the group can succeed leads to the strategic and moral urgency of each contribution” ( Finkel et al. 1989: 890 ). Under these conditions, political action groups attempt to

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Fabian Frenzel

of public debate: who is responsible for maintaining the social reproduction of the camp? How are duties such as cooking, childcare, education, and security organized in a collective setup? The example of Resurrection City shows how the experience of

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Never Mind the Ballots

The Edible Ballot Society and the Performance of Citizenship

Matthew Hayes

something that people regard as unquestionable, as sacrosanct. It’s unquestionable that we live in a democracy, they say, and so voting is important, a part of our democratic duty. Questioning that was an affront to people.” But again, there is a touch of

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Jennifer Heuer

In 1797, two brothers brought an unusual case to the French legislature. Their niece, the daughter of the famous martyr of liberty Michel Lepeletier, had been “adopted by the nation” in 1793. Now officially emancipated from her relatives’ tutelage, she wished to marry a debt-ridden young Dutch man. Unable to prevent the marriage through more traditional means, Suzanne Lepeletier’s uncles demanded that the state fulfill its duties as father. They insisted that the legislative assembly oversee the establishment of its adopted daughter, and with her, the fate of its revolutionary patrimony; Suzanne must be stopped from “denationalizing” herself through her planned marriage to a foreigner.

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Elizabeth C. Macknight

Gender and class informed the attitudes of French noblemen toward military training and an army career in the France of the early Third Republic. Honor for the male aristocracy was considered to be “in the blood” and still very closely bound to ancient military virtues of duty, bravery, and sacrifice. Boys raised in noble families were conditioned to value martial honor—and to seek to embody it—well before entering prestigious military academies in adolescence. Ancestral tradition created pressure on noblemen to serve with distinction in the army and, by doing so, to conform to an ideal of military manhood. This strained some noblemen's relationships with male relatives and the cross-generational imperative to uphold the warrior ethos led many to their death on the battlefield.