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Bonnie White

press and the government used the debate as a venue to discuss issues beyond gender and employment: the state of the empire, the productive power of British industry, and the recovery of the “lost generation” through successful marriages. The solutions

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Silke Schwandt

The article deals with the semantic career of virtus as a political concept in the Middle Ages. It traces the different aspects of meaning assigned to this word in four medieval texts, namely St. Augustine's City of God, the Regula Pastoralis of Gregory the Great, the Via Regia of Smaragdus of St. Mihiel, and the Policraticus of John of Salisbury. Using quantitative methods, I analyze the employment of virtus with a focus on its relevance in the political discourse, and I also address the shift in meaning and argumentative capacity that the term undergoes over time. In the end, virtus can be shown to be a highly flexible yet strongly functional term that plays an important role in the conceptions of medieval societies.

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Virtually a Historian

Blogs and the Recent History of Dispossessed Academic Labor

Claire Bond Potter

A contemporary history of higher education in the United States is being written on the Internet. Academic bloggers interrupt and circumvent the influence of professional associations over debates about unemployment, contingent labor, publishing, tenure review, and other aspects of creating and maintaining a scholarly career. On the Internet, limited status and prestige, as well as one's invisibility as a colleague, are no barrier to acquiring an audience within the profession or creating a contemporary archive of academic labor struggles. At a moment of financial and political crisis for universities, these virtual historians have increasingly turned their critical faculties to scrutinizing, critiquing, and documenting the neoliberal university. Although blogging has not displaced established sources of intellectual prestige, virtual historians are engaged in the project of constructing their own scholarly identities and expanding what counts as intellectual and political labor for scholars excluded from the world of full-time employment.

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Policing the Post-Colonial Order

Surveillance and the African Immigrant Community in France, 1960-1979

Gillian Glaes

By the early 1960s, an increasing number of Africans migrated to France from their former colonies in West Africa. Most were men hoping to gain employment in several different industries. Their settlement in Paris and other cities signaled the start of "post-colonial" African immigration to France. While scholars have analyzed several facets of this migration, they often overlook the ways in which France's role as a colonial power in West Africa impacted the reception of these immigrants after 1960, where surveillance played a critical role. Colonial regimes policed and monitored the activities of indigenous populations and anyone else they deemed problematic. The desire to understand newly arriving immigrant groups and suspicion of foreign-born populations intersected with the state's capacity to monitor certain groups in order to regulate and control them. While not physically violent, these surveillance practices reflected the role that symbolic violence played in the French government's approach to this post-colonial immigrant population.

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Katherine Weikert and Elena Woodacre

gender in the Middle Ages. In 2014 at Winchester, the topic for discussion was “gender and status.” This topic was specifically chosen for the potential fruitfulness of the idea: gender and status could encompass ideas such as social status, employment

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Neoliberalism, the Left and the Rise of the Far Right

On the Political and Ideological Implications of Capitalism's Subordination of Democracy

Costas Panayotakis

capitalist investment for employment and for the strength of the economy more generally ( Held 1996: 215 ; Wright and Rogers 2011: 343-345 ). As even Marx (1963: 215; 1978: 210-211; 1978: 217) recognized, the lot of ordinary working people is more tolerable

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Klaus Oschema, Mette Thunø, Evan Kuehn, and Blake Ewing

are met with skepticism. Nonetheless, empathy itself has entered public use regardless of its theoretical employment. And, as Matravers points out throughout his book, it continues to offer insight for specialists even today, notably among cognitive

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Free from State Violence or Free to Comply?

A Revised Typology of Coercion and Repression in Liberal Democracies

Barbora Capinska

-violent forms of repression used in “secure democracies” leads to upholding hypotheses presupposing the non-violent nature of democracies in the first place. Of course, the employment of such narrow definitions is directly linked to the quantitative character of

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Resist and Revivify

Democratic Theory in a Time of Defiance

Jean-Paul Gagnon and Emily Beausoleil

first is that these surges of populist politics from the Left and Right, and the disaffection that propels them, are rooted in citizens’ sense of political powerlessness ( Stoker and Evans 2014 ). Whether declining local industry, employment, and

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The Limits of Liberal Democracy

Prospects for Democratizing Democracy

Viviana Asara

equality at its bosom, and on the other hand it is a technique of governing resting on the employment of popular consent to restrain claims for equality and justice and on the manipulation of public opinion through management of mass communication