This article exposes criterial bases of the development of social quality in the USSR and Russia. The causes of the increased volatility of the state-monopoly capitalism emerging in Russia from the 1990s and in the first decade of the twenty-first century are analyzed. Characteristics of social quality such as a high proportion of low-paid employees, a low standard of living and a high economic inequality are considered. The impact of the precarity of employment on these processes is demonstrated. Risk factors of precarity of employment such as type of labor contract, form of employment, working conditions and wages (in particular, volatility and discreteness of payments) are analyzed. The evaluation of scale of the precarity of employment in the formal sector in Russia is made; the distribution of workers in precarity of employment by kinds of economic activity and the deviation of their average wages are introduced. Overcoming the instability of development is linked to the transition to a society of people-humanistic socialism.
A Look at Russia
Vyacheslav Nikolayevitch Bobkov, Olesya Veredyuk, and Ulvi Aliyev
Reducing Work Risks Stemming from the Market Economy in Northeast Thailand
Shinsuke Tomita, Mario Ivan Lopez, and Yasuyuki Kono
consumables ( Statista 2018 ; WBG 2018 ). Since the 1990s, Thai’s urban centers have expanded placing pressure on young people in rural areas to migrate to urban areas in search of employment. Disparities in wealth and income distribution have been a major
The Case of the Migration Policy Regime in Thailand
The paper examines the migration policy regime in Thailand using a human security lens. It suggests that insecurities experienced by migrants are partly caused or exacerbated by a migration policy regime, consisting of migration laws and regulations and non-migration related policies and programs, that pushes migrants into irregular forms of mobility and insecure employment options. These effects are worse for women migrants who have fewer resources to access legal channels while they are relegated to insecure employment in the reproductive or informal sectors. Using a gender and human security analysis, therefore, reveals how the migration policy regime, often informed by a restrictive national security approach, can clash with the human security needs of migrants by creating a large pool of unprotected irregular migrants with women occupying the most vulnerable forms of employment. In conclusion, it is suggested that this ‘en-gendering’ of human insecurities could be overcome if gender equality was designed into policies and guided their implementation.
Three Remarks for Kindling a Debate
Social rights were to be the completion of the citizenship status of all members within a political community. Through a variety of causes (their entanglement with the goals of full employment and the welfare state, the complexities of the political project of the European Union, and conceptual confusion) the development of these rights has been arrested. The article sketches some of the origins of the present predicament of (social) rights and (social) citizenship. The article is informed by the hope that the arguments it puts forward may contribute to a renewed discussion on the necessity and promises of an EU form of citizenship that is worth instituting and emulating.
The coal industry exercises a pervasive influence upon mining communities in Appalachia even though it makes minimal contributions to employment. Miners rarely participate in movements that fight against coal companies for better working conditions. One explanation for this paradox is the depletion of social capital. In this article, I first use the existing body of literature to build a theoretical framework for discussing bonding social capital. Second, I analyze how the United Mine Workers of America in Harlan County, Kentucky at the beginning of the twentieth century worked to generate social capital. The results show that these coalfield residents demonstrated a high degree of social capital in terms of a strong shared sense of reliability and a dedication to collective activities and intimate networks. The union during that period engaged in strategies that were instrumental in creating this high level of social capital: holding regular meetings, organizing collective actions, promoting collective identity, and electing charismatic leaders.
Rolf Dieter Hepp
, and future perspectives so that a big gap has emerged between the existing notions; their associated expectations, attitudes, and so on; and the realistic situation regarding especially the field of employment and secured existence. Most of the major
Tracing Rights, Discretion, and Negotiation within a Norwegian Labor Activation Program
Erika Gubrium, Leah Johnstone, and Ivar Lødemel
the presumption of high levels of employment ( Christiansen and Markkola 2006 ; Halvorsen and Stjernø 2008 ). The system’s focus on claimant rights was started comparatively early, and by 1960, the long-ruling Labour Party had established a broad and
employment policies with social policies: BRICS should aim to promote the improvement of living conditions through sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development for its citizens as well as the global citizenry. Such an agenda seeks to reduce
Differences in International Scientific Discourses
result of which social security has been transformed from a collective to an individual matter: “Particularly in Germany, social security systems reproduce inequalities in the social situation as defined by the employment system through their dependence
An Analysis of the Evaluation of Different Classes
Cui Yan and Huang Yongliang
European Union in the 1990s. Its theoretical background was that because the position of neoliberalism became increasingly prominent in Europe in the 1990s, economic policies compared with policies concerning all other areas (employment, income, education