This article investigates the debates on expatriation policies after the establishment of Israel as an independent state in 1948. It shows that citizenship is a contingent political construction rather than an intrinsic national tradition. During the first years of its existence, the exact formulation of the type of citizenship in Israel was not fully established. Although scholars of the Israeli state claim that ethnicity dictated the formulation of Israeli rule, it was the desire to build a modern and democratic state that was the basis for naturalization and expatriation in Israel. The article argues that the resolution to allow multiple citizenships was pragmatic rather than ideological. It shows that in Israel, this policy was not derived from a post-national ideology but from the need to recruit more Jewish immigrants from affluent countries.
changing security threats in Israel, particularly with regard to terrorism. Amendments 9 (2008), 10 (2011), 12 (2016), and 13 (2017) attempt to define the conditions for the expatriation of terrorists who are Israeli citizens. The investigation of Israeli
Ephraim Yuchtman-Yaar, Yasmin Alkalay, and Tom Aival
, like expatriate Lebanese George Antonius and Syrian Michel Aflaq, played a key role in shaping a pan-Arab identity shared by Christians and Muslims alike. In the same way, Mizrahim emphasized Jewish nationalism as a shared basis of collective Israeli
Methodological Reflections from the Field
biography compounded by common expatriate status further strengthened my relationship with them, allowing me to ask probing questions about students’ ability to embody the security practices discussed in the classroom. Using the cars of local (US) students
people living with HIV ( UNAIDS, 2014 ); where five countries maintain a blanket ban on entry by people living with HIV, five require proof of an HIV-negative status for those seeking to stay 10–90 days, and at least 18 countries sanction the expatriation