In this article I examine why Kuwait and other migrant-receiving countries in the Persian Gulf have failed to enfranchise migrant workers and their descendants through citizenship. I contend that the increasing exclusion of expatriate workers from these societies can be understood in comparison with the disenfranchisement of the stateless populations to which these governments are host. I argue that nationalist narratives that portray these groups as threatening to the host societies have been extremely significant in creating an atmosphere of increasing isolation and exclusion for both expatriates and stateless peoples. I conclude by examining what the Kuwaiti case tells us about how notions of membership and belonging develop and the significant role of historic and political circumstances in shaping these notions.
Expatriates, Stateless Peoples and the Politics of Citizenship
This article investigates the debates on expatriation policies after the establishment of Israel as an independent state in 1948. It shows that citizenship is a contingent political construction rather than an intrinsic national tradition. During the first years of its existence, the exact formulation of the type of citizenship in Israel was not fully established. Although scholars of the Israeli state claim that ethnicity dictated the formulation of Israeli rule, it was the desire to build a modern and democratic state that was the basis for naturalization and expatriation in Israel. The article argues that the resolution to allow multiple citizenships was pragmatic rather than ideological. It shows that in Israel, this policy was not derived from a post-national ideology but from the need to recruit more Jewish immigrants from affluent countries.
changing security threats in Israel, particularly with regard to terrorism. Amendments 9 (2008), 10 (2011), 12 (2016), and 13 (2017) attempt to define the conditions for the expatriation of terrorists who are Israeli citizens. The investigation of Israeli
Ephraim Yuchtman-Yaar, Yasmin Alkalay, and Tom Aival
, like expatriate Lebanese George Antonius and Syrian Michel Aflaq, played a key role in shaping a pan-Arab identity shared by Christians and Muslims alike. In the same way, Mizrahim emphasized Jewish nationalism as a shared basis of collective Israeli
showing her opposition to the condition by wearing loose-fitting clothes and headscarves. An expatriate activist fighting against the idea of compulsory hijab completes the actions which take place inside Iran. In doing so, women’s rights activists in the
Johanna Gehmacher, Svetla Baloutzova, Orlin Sabev, Nezihe Bilhan, Tsvetelin Stepanov, Evgenia Kalinova, Zorana Antonijevic, Alexandra Ghit, Chiara Bonfiglioli, Ana Luleva, Barbara Klich-Kluczewska, Courtney Doucette, Katarzyna Stańczak-Wiślicz, Valentina Mitkova, Vjollca Krasniqi, Pepka Boyadjieva, Marina Hughson, and Rayna Gavrilova
franca of the time). In “Expatriates: Women’s Communities, Mobility and Cosmopolitism in Early Modern Europe: English and Spanish Nuns in Flanders,” María Jesús Pando-Canteli analyzes the multilingual transcultural communities organized by the Catholic
people living with HIV ( UNAIDS, 2014 ); where five countries maintain a blanket ban on entry by people living with HIV, five require proof of an HIV-negative status for those seeking to stay 10–90 days, and at least 18 countries sanction the expatriation