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Sébastien Conard and Tom Lambeens

For Saint Augustine, time was a distentio animi, an extension of the mind. This opinion strongly differs from our modern understanding of time as a measurable parameter of the physical world. Nonetheless, subjectifying approaches still coexist alongside objectifying conceptions of time. They necessarily alternate in our daily lives: though we all keep years, seasons and hours in mind, we live through many moments very personally. Hence, it is indispensable that we pay attention to subjective time experience in the humanities and the arts. In this article, we introduce the concept of duration, as developed by Bergson and Deleuze, into the field of comics studies. We analyse the creation of an experience of time in the work of Chris Ware and Kevin Huizenga, focusing particularly on their deployment of repetition, but we also note how artists such as André Franquin and Willy Vandersteen transgressed classical reading time by invoking a feeling of duration. We go on to consider abstract comics, and the concrete awareness of the actual moment they offer to the reader, which generates direct experience of duration. However, taking Martin Vaughn-James' The Cage as an example, we point out that such a temporal sensation is not dependent on formal abstraction but can occur within the boundaries of pictorial figuration.

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Discarded Europe

Money, Trash and the Possibilities of a New Temporality

Elana Resnick

How are time and materiality felt in periods of expectation, when change is awaited but never comes, at least not in the way anticipated? Disappointment may set in, but in the expanding European context in which I conducted research, something else occurs: sensory experiences of time and materiality intermingle and shape each other. These experiences of temporal-material relations, in a context of historical disorientation, are the basis of a new European temporality. My ethnographic research on waste management in Bulgaria, conducted between 2010 and 2013, with informal garbage collectors, city street sweepers, waste company officials, Sofia citizens, municipal representatives and ministry employees, provides the empirical foundation for this piece.

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The Editors

may expand our notion of what a ‘natural’ experience of time can be, given our experience of gazing at stars that die before their light reaches us, or simply of looking at old photographs. The article by Benoît Crucifix and Gert Meesters is based on a

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Raphaël Baroni

glance. As highlighted by the authors, this almost inconceivable experience of time is actually the natural experience of any reader of comics, since, by default, the future is already visible when we begin to read the page, and what has already been read

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Harriet Kennedy, Elizabeth (Biz) Nijdam, Logan Labrune, and Chris Reyns-Chikuma

experience of time is led by the creator’s own decisions about how full or not to make a page, Chute makes a convincing case for the unique possibilities of comics to bear effective witness to the events of war. Chute’s book is not only the ideal introduction

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The Mobilization of Weimar Radio

Actuality, Microphone, Radio-film

Brían Hanrahan

This essay addresses the effects and experiences that become possible, and become the object of fascination and reflection, when early German radio mobilized-when it moved out of the studio to transmit from places in the "outside world." Mobile electro-acoustic technologies enabled a new sense of exteriority and new experiences of time and space. The paper reconstructs and analyzes three rhetorical figures associated with this mobilized radio. First, the complex concept of actuality, among other things, referred to temporal liveness and the palpable auditory presence of location sound. Second, the popular rhetorical and visual image of the "traveling microphone," emphasized new relations of inside and outside, studio and world, reality and representation. Third, comparisons between radio and film-including the term "radio-film," an early name for live location broadcasts-provided a vocabulary for understanding the properties of a mobile radio, including the intense sense of an outside world made present for the listener at home.

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Que reste-t-il de nos amours?

The Expectations of 1989–1991 Revisited

Francisco Martínez

). Overall, transformation in the experience of time has been one of the most important areas of change since the collapse of socialism across the region between 1989 and 1991. As Liviu Chelcea (2015) shows in his ethnography of bank workers in Romania

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Tracey Reimann-Dawe

Zeiterfahrung [Concepts of time and experiences of time], ed. Hans Michael Baumgartner (Freiburg im Bresgau: Alber, 1994), 95–113, here: 95–96, and Helmutt Appel, “Der physikalische Zeitbegriff im Wandel naturwissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis” [The physical concept

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The Aesthetics of Boredom

Slow Cinema and the Virtues of the Long Take in Once Upon a Time in Anatolia

Emre Çağlayan

idleness, but aim to re-orient their experience of time and duration so as to engage in active and creative reflection. The films in question do not attempt to bore their audiences en masse by eliciting monotony and idleness, but aim to reorient their

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Lazy Labor, Modernization, and Coloniality

Mobile Cultures between the Andes and the Amazon around 1900

Jaime Moreno Tejada

consideration of the indigenous perspective. How are we to couple tarabana with coloniality, for instance? Ethnomethodology has done much to explain the nonwestern experience of time and space. In a recent book on Amazonian mobility, the editor distinguishes