Food sovereignty, as a critical alternative to the concept of food security, is broadly defined as the right of local peoples to control their own food systems, including markets, ecological resources, food cultures, and production modes. This article reviews the origins of the concept of food sovereignty and its theoretical and methodological development as an alternative approach to food security, building on a growing interdisciplinary literature on food sovereignty in the social and agroecological sciences. Specific elements of food sovereignty examined include food regimes, rights-based and citizenship approaches to food and food sovereignty, and the substantive concerns of advocates for this alternative paradigm, including a new trade regime, agrarian reform, a shift to agroecological production practices, attention to gender relations and equity, and the protection of intellectual and indigenous property rights. The article concludes with an evaluation of community-based perspectives and suggestions for future research on food sovereignty.
A New Rights Framework for Food and Nature?
An Appraisal of International Perspectives and Implications for the South African Industrial Biofuels Strategy
The global rush toward a biofueled future (and subsequent apprehension concerning unintended consequences) has met with powerful and wide-ranging critique. Bolstered by globally increasing food prices peaking in 2008, food insecurity has become a central concern when considering pursuing biofuels. Arguments in the wider literature propose a number of perspectives with which to evaluate the biofuels-food security nexus. In South Africa, however, the debate is largely configured around maize-for-ethanol and polarized between two antagonistic camps. A host of agricultural lobbies and industrial interests argue in support of biofuels while some politicians, civil society, and NGOs argue against it. Both groups draw their arguments from various domains of the food security discourse in support of their cause. This article considers the merits of these opposing arguments in relation to wider perspectives in the literature, in many cases highlighting non-holistic assumptions made by the opposing claimants. This article seeks to rekindle a waning dialogue and provide a more robust outline of the major concerns that need to be addressed when considering biofuels production from a food security perspective. Only then can South Africa expect to weigh up accurately the value of pursuing biofuels production.
Peasant Agroecological Systems as New Frontiers of Exploitation?
Anne Cristina de la Vega-Leinert and Peter Clausing
-efficiency in use of natural resources Local-regional diversity in socio-environmental systems Food security through conventional, commercial / agriculture, export markets Food sovereignty through biodiversity friendly farming, short food circuits and
Addressing Inequality and Neoliberalism
Teresa Marie Mares and Alison Hope Alkon
In this article, we bring together academic literature tracing contemporary social movements centered on food, unpacking the discourses of local food, community food security, food justice, and food sovereignty. This body of literature transcends national borders and draws on a rich genealogy of studies on environmental justice, the intersections of race, class, and gender, and sustainable agro-food systems. Scholars have emphasized two key issues that persist within these movements: inequalities related to race and class that shape the production, distribution, and consumption of food, and the neoliberal constraints of market-based solutions to problems in the food system. This article claims that food movements in the United States would be strengthened through reframing their work within a paradigm of food sovereignty, an approach that would emphasize the production of local alternatives, but also enable a dismantling of the policies that ensure the dominance of the corporate food regime. The article concludes by offering a critical analysis of future research directions for scholars who are committed to understanding and strengthening more democratic and sustainable food systems.
A Critical Review
Laura Calvet-Mir and Matthieu Salpeteur
acquire and exchange seeds quickly received increasing attention. Researchers then started to analyze local seed exchange and seed supply systems (e.g., Crissman and Uquillas 1989 ), stressing the importance of such systems for food security ( Almekinders
The Case of the Bostan of Kuzguncuk, Istanbul
plots were used until the 1950s. During the 1990s, partly thanks to the United Nations ( Mougeot 2000 ), UA was seen as a means to ensure the food security of cities, particularly in countries of the global South. This point of view was accompanied by
People Power, Adaptation, and Challenges in Rennes (France) and Montreal (Canada)
Giulia Giacchè and Lya Porto
Food Security Plan and each borough has its own dynamics of partnership, including the association of cooperatives working with urban gardens, collective kitchens 9 and local markets, NGOs working on environmental and food education, food banks, and
A Comparative Analysis of Urban Allotment Gardeners
Esther J. Veen and Sebastian Eiter
urban agriculture in general). However, the functions assigned to a garden and the weight of these functions depend on the acting individual or body; while city councils may mention food security or budget savings, gardeners in industrialized countries
Civil Society and Urban Agriculture in Europe
Mary P. Corcoran and Joëlle Salomon Cavin
the modus operandi of civil society groups and actors who favor a more bottom-up style of action predicated upon the involvement of a range of actors who demonstrate high levels of motivation around sustainability and food security, and who engage in
Attila Tóth, Barbora Duží, Jan Vávra, Ján Supuka, Mária Bihuňová, Denisa Halajová, Stanislav Martinát, and Eva Nováková
. The intentional establishment of allotments responded to the migration into urban areas in this period, as well as to the poor living conditions of industrial workers. Allotments were supposed not only to improve dietary conditions and food security of