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Elite de Façade et Mirages de l’Independance

Les Petits Entrepreneurs Etrangers en France dans l’Entre-Deux-Guerres

Claire Zalc

In the literature, immigrant entrepreneurs are described as the élite of the best “integrated” immigrants. Histories of migrant communities all insist on the role of the entrepreneurs as the center of the community and the symbol of social success. In this paper, I will discuss the diverse social meaning attached to being an entrepreneur for an immigrant in Paris during the interwar period. In order to describe the social position of immigrant entrepreneurs, I worked on professional careers, based on the study of more than two hundred applications for French nationality from foreign entrepreneurs during the first half of the twentieth century. It's hard to conclude that there is a one-way social mobility of entrepreneurs, either ascendant or descendent. While some went from the working class to owning a shop, eventually able to spend and save money, others became entrepreneurs as a necessity rather than choice.

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Migration to the “First Large Suburban Ghetto” in America

Korean Immigrant Merchants in South Central Los Angeles in the 1980s

Chanhaeng Lee

-class neighborhoods, including South Central Los Angeles, before the influx of African American migrants from the South in the 1940s and 1950s. Jewish shopkeepers owned a large number of South Central Los Angeles’s furniture, jewelry, and liquor stores. During the

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Carl Strikwerda

similar trade surplus from British imperial imports to Germany. 35 German industry and agriculture recruited migrant labor from a wider area each year. 36 Other powers did not inhibit German economic growth. Colonies offered nothing that Germany could