was a member of a professional group with a significant impact not only on the elite in this part of Europe, but also on educational initiatives for girls: namely, governesses. The model of private education provided by governesses in aristocratic
Foreign Governesses in Wallachia in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Young Women in the Tsukunft Youth Movement in Interwar Poland and Their Role Models
empowering and often radicalizing experience of young Tsukunft women during the interwar period as they learned from their female role models how to live, organize, rebel, resist, and fight. I argue that despite the scarcity of high-ranking female leaders
Women as Seen through the Media
Renata Jambrešić Kirin and Reana Senjković
This article shows how the model of the ideal patriotic woman, established through propaganda activities between two competitive ideologies in Croatia during the Second World War, have been transformed and adapted to accommodate diverse genres of memory culture from 1945 until the present day. In order to indicate the inter- relation of media-ideological constructs and self-definition, the authors have compared cultural representation models of ‘acceptable’ and ‘obnoxious’ females in war time with ethnographical interviews conducted with women at the celebration of the sixtieth anniversary of the Antifašistički front žena (Women’s Anti-Fascist Front, AFŽ) Istrian Conference in 2004. The contrast between recollections and culturally constructed official memory shows how the memories of women, as autonomous historical subjects, resist the imposed collective amnesia on the anti-fascist movement, although these women also leave many ‘unsuitable truths’ untold about their subordinate role within the anti-fascist movement.
The Autobiography of Polish Actress Irena Solska (1875–1958)
This article considers the autobiography of the famous Polish actress Irena Solska (1875-1958) as a response to the masculinisation of creativity in twentieth-century theatre, which was a result of the affirmation of the director-centred model. In her autobiography, Solska constructs the image of her creativity with the help of characteristics traditionally marked as 'feminine'. Taking into consideration the theatrical context of the 1930s to the 1950s, the period in which she wrote her text, I regard such a construction as subversive. Solska refused to conform to the new aesthetic norms of the period, which insisted on the dissociation of women's creativity from their embodiment and sexuality. She expressed nostalgia for the full creative status women artists enjoyed under the actor-centred paradigm, but which was lost as a result of the introduction of the director-centred model. Solska questioned the pejorative connotation of the actor-centred theatre as 'feminised' and, by purely literary means, reaffirmed such characteristics as embodiment, impulsiveness and disruptiveness.
The Case of Yugoslavia in a Comparative Perspective
This article uses a comparative transnational model for a study of women’s resistance in Yugoslavia, with particular reference to the Independent State of Croatia. It challenges the dominant paradigm of active resistance in Hitler’s Europe as a largely masculine and military activity. Historians have long recognised the contribution of women to resistance in Yugoslavia; however, an ideologised and politically driven interpretation of wartime behaviour, combined with an overemphasis on active resistance, has militated against a nuanced approach towards the study of dissent in its diverse manifestations. This article proposes that a woman-centred focus on the social, everyday aspects of resistance is illuminating on definitions of and the preconditions necessary for successful resistance as well as on the subject of collaboration and conformism in the Second World War.
Normative Sexuality in Post-1966 Romania
Erin K. Biebuyck
This article examines several sex manuals from Nicolae Ceauşescu’s Romania for the ideologically-infused sex norms they contain. These manuals constructed a sexual ideal that located pleasure in the marital couple rather than in the individual, defining ‘normal sexuality’ as heterosexual and privileging its collective significance as an act for reproduction over the experience of pleasure by an individual. This collective model of pleasure was key to the construction of the communist subject as a member of a collective rather than as an autonomous individual. While this collective subject had roots in Romanian pre-communist traditions, communist sex experts rejected conventional gender roles according to which women are subordinate to men. Subsequent comparisons with contemporaneous American sex manuals reveal that the Romanian communist discourse on pleasure differed significantly from that of popular American sex advice of the same period.
Erica L. Fraser
With the onset of the Cold War and a new nuclear world order, Soviet physicists found themselves at the nexus of scientific research and weapons development. This article investigates the subjectivity of these physicists as an issue of masculinity. Influenced by Connell's models of subordinated, complicit, and hegemonic masculinity, the article finds that the stories nuclear physicists tell about their research in the 1950s are inconsistent and shifting, with the narrators simultaneously remembering unfreedom and privilege. They tell of being conscripted to military work against their will but then enjoying (and deserving) the resulting power, all while maintaining strong homosocial networks in the laboratory predicated on excluding women. Evidence from personal narratives provides unique insight into these multiple masculinities and the way the authors position themselves as (masculinized) Cold War subjects.
Liberty P. Sproat
Since the early 1920s, following the Bolshevik Revolution, Clara Zetkin, the renowned German socialist, politician, and fighter for women's rights, argued that only communism provided complete emancipation for women because it brought equality both in theory and in practice. Zetkin used her periodical Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale (The communist women's international) (1921-1925) to convince women of the virtues of joining Soviet Russia (later the Soviet Union) in worldwide revolution rather than succumbing to the empty promises of feminist movements in capitalist nations. From reports of International Women's Day celebrations to statistical reviews of the institutions established to aid working women, Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale used the example of Soviet Russia to illustrate what life for women entailed in a country that had experienced a successful communist revolution. The Soviet model portrayed in Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale was optimistic and illustrated what Zetkin anticipated her female readers dreamed for themselves. The periodical, thus, became a tool of communist propaganda to convince women that supporting international communism was the most effective path for obtaining equal economic and social rights with men.
Christian Promitzer, Eleni Fournaraki, Zorica Bečanović-Nikolić, Susanne Kröhnert-Othman, Olga Todorova, Marian J. Rubchak, Velisalva Petrova, Rebecca Nagel, Philippa Hetherington, Timothy Ashplant, Susan Zimmermann, Ana Luleva, and Natalia Novikova
Svetla Baloutzova, Demography and Nation. Social Legislation and Population Policy in Bulgaria, 1918–1944, Budapest and New York: Central European University Press (Central European University Press Studies in the History of Medicine, vol. 1), 296 pp., $45.00/ €39.95/£35.00 (hb), ISBN 978-963-9776-66-1.
Katerina I. Dalakoura, I ekpaideusi ton gunaikon stis hellenikes koinotetes tis Othomanikis autokratorias (19os aionas–1922). Koinonikopoiesi sta protipa tis patriarchias kai tou ethnikismou (Women’s education in the Greek communities of the Ottoman Empire (19th century– 1922). Socialization according to the models of patriarchy and nationalism), Athens: Gutenberg, 2008, 450 pp., € 33.50 (pb), ISBN 978-960-01-1173-6.
Biljana Dojčinović, Susreti u tami. Uvod u čitanje Virdžinije Vulf (Encounters in the dark. An introduction to reading Virginia Woolf), Belgrade: Službeni glasnik, 2011, 136 pp., €5 (pb), ISBN 978-86-519-0814-2.
Umut Erel, Migrant Women Transforming Citizenship: Life-Stories from Britain and Germany, Farnham: Ashgate, 2009, 220 pp., £55, ISBN 978- 0-7546-7494-8 .
Haim Gerber, State and Society in the Ottoman Empire (Variorum Collected Studies Series, 944), Farnham-Burlington: Ashgate, 2010, pp. xvi + 296, £72.00 (hb), ISBN 978-0-7546-6985-2.
Oksana Kis’, Zhinka v tradytsiinii Ukraïnskii kul’turi (Woman in traditional Ukrainian culture), L’viv, Ukraine: National Academy of Ukraine, 2008, 271 pp., ISBN 978-966-02-5072-7.
Ivan Elenkov and Daniela Koleva, eds., Detstvoto pri sotsializma: Politicheski, institutsionalni i biografichni perspectivi (Childhood under socialism: Political, institutional and biographical perspectives), Sofia: Center for Advanced Studies-Sofia/Riva, 2010, 208 pp., 11,40 lv, ISBN 978-954-320-281-2.
Theodore Koulouris, Hellenism and Loss in the Work of Virginia Woolf, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2011, 242 pp., US$114.95 (hb), ISBN 978-1-4094-0445-3.
Sharon A. Kowalsky, Deviant Women: Female Crime and Criminology in Revolutionary Russia, 1880–1930, DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009, 330 pp., US$42.00 (hb), ISBN 978-08-758-0406-4.
Dalia Leinarte, Adopting and Remembering Soviet Reality: Life Stories of Lithuanian Women, 1945–1970, Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2010, 234 pp., ISBN 978-90-420-3062-6.
Heidi Niederkofler, Maria Mesner, Johanna Zechner, eds., Frauentag! Erfindung und Karriere einer Tradition (Women’s Day! Invention and career of a tradition) (= Kataloge des Österreichischen Museums für Volkskunde, vol. 93), Vienna: Löcker Verlag, 2011, 344 pp., €29.80 (pb), ISBN 978-3-85409-585-9.
Kristina Popova, Marijana Piskova, Margareth Lanzinger, Nikola Langreiter, and Petar Vodenicharov, eds., Women and Minorities Ar- chives: Ways of Archiving, Sofia and Vienna: SEMARSh, 2009, 291 pp., ISBN 978-954-9590-03-6.
Natalia Pushkareva, Gendernaia teoriia i istoricheskoe znanie (Gender theory and historical knowledge), St. Petersburg: Aletheia, 2007, 496 pp., ISBN 978-5-91419-007-8.
Sharon A. Kowalsky
-sponsored institutions, governesses served as role models for young women and shaped the next generation of Romanian teachers. Similarly, Magdalena Kozłowska investigates the transgenerational connections that shaped and influenced the female members of the Tsukunft, the