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Meglio di ieri

Educational Films, National Identity and Citizenship in Italy from 1948 to 1968

Anne Bruch

summed up the achievements that followed from the government’s strategy of economic and social renewal along with modernization. Two films in particular exemplify the tropes of national regeneration—namely, Ieri e oggi (“Yesterday and Today”) and the

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Enis Sulstarova

modernizing country that implemented secular reforms against the backdrop of Islamic traditional culture. In republican Turkey, Islam, “like all other religions,” was confined to the private sphere, polygamy was prohibited, women went uncovered in public, and

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Marcus Otto

This article analyzes how the fundamental challenge of decolonization has resonated in history textbooks published in France since the 1960s. It therefore contextualizes textbook knowledge within different areas of society and focuses on predominant discourses that influenced history textbooks' (post)colonial representations in the period examined. These discourses encompass the crisis of Western civilization, modernization, republican integration, and the postcolonial politics of memory. The author argues that history textbooks have thus become media, as well as objects of an emerging postcolonial politics of memory that involves intense conflicts over immigration and national identity and challenges France's (post)colonial legacy in general.

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Irina Kosterina

In this article I examine the situation of girls in the North Caucasus, a region that combines features of both a traditional society with its emphasis on the value of religion, family, and older generations, and a modernized society with its emphasis on the economic emancipation of women, and the pursuit of self-development and individual life strategies. The research model used interviews with girls and an analysis of essays written by girls in high school to explore their life values, priorities, and the impact of religion and traditions on their lives. The research also sought to identify girls' place in the gender, age, and status hierarchies of local societies.

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Jonathan Anuik

Melissa Bingmann. 2015. Prep School Cowboys: Ranch Schools in the American West. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 256 pp. ISBN 978-0826355430

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Parents, Sons, and Globalization in Tanzania

Implications for Adolescent Health

Marni Sommer, Samuel Likindikoko, and Sylvia Kaaya

As the global youth population grows exponentially across Africa, there is increasing recognition of the risky health behaviors impeding boys’ healthy transitions through puberty. This study in Tanzania sought to capture boys’ voiced experiences of transitioning through adolescence, and the masculinity norms shaping boys’ engagement in risky behaviors. A critical finding was the gap in parent-son communication around pubertal body changes and avoidance of risk behaviors. Findings also suggest influences from globalization and modernization are changing boys’ pubertal experiences and introducing new challenges for parents attempting to provide guidance. Given evidence from high-income countries indicating parents can serve as protective factors for young people during the transition through adolescence, additional research is needed to understand current parent-son dynamics and potential interventions.

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Chinichi Arai

Despite modernization of the Japanese school system after 1872, this period was marked by the war in East Asia and nationalism focusing on the emperor, whereby the imperial rescript of 1890 defined the core of national education. Following defeat in the Second World War, Japan reformed its education system in accordance with a policy geared towards peace and democracy in line with the United Nations. However, following the peace treaty of 1951 and renewed economic development during the Cold War, the conservative power bloc revised history textbooks in accordance with nationalist ideology. Many teachers, historians and trade unions resisted this tendency, and in 1982 neighboring countries in East Asia protested against the Japanese government for justifying past aggression in history textbooks. As a result, descriptions of wartime misdeeds committed by the Japanese army found their way into textbooks after 1997. Although the ethnocentric history textbook for Japanese secondary schools was published and passed government screening in 2001, there is now a trend towards bilateral or multilateral teaching materials between Japan, South Korea, and China. Two bilateral and one multilateral work have been published so far, which constitute the basis for future trials toward publishing a common textbook.

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Andreas Weiß

modernization of the school came the nationalization and streamlining of both the geographical discourse and the colonial discourse as well. 35 East Asia in the German Imagination Despite all historical ascriptions that emphasized the long histories and

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Introduction

Textbooks in Periods of Political Transition after the Second World War

Kira Mahamud Angulo and Anna Ascenzi

consensus and agreed to mutual concessions, in what Share and Mainwaring called a “transition via transaction.” 27 Political transition was preceded by economic liberalization in the 1960s, and modernizing educational reforms towards the end of the same

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Kira Mahamud Angulo and Yovana Hernández Laina

conveyed to children was not only insufficient and incomplete but also attempted to link modernization, liberalization, and economic development to a false sense of freedom and sociopolitical wellbeing. Theoretical Framework What is economic culture? As