authority; risk will disrupt modernity and modernization; risk will lead to changes ( Beck 1992 ). However, if risk is subversive, and is a driving force for change, why do some countries react promptly whereas others are slow in response to risk? Why does
Catherine Mei Ling Wong
In East Asia, climate change as a policy concern has been a late developer. The last decade, however, has seen the mainstreaming of environmental issues in core policy circles, but in the form of market-friendly, pro-industrial development framings. This paper problematizes such environmental framings by looking at the politics of state-led ecological modernization and the institutional reforms that have emerged out of it. It argues that State-led ecological modernization necessarily leads to environmental framings that are too narrowly defined by state and industrial interests - hence the focus on carbon emissions, energy security and the impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The State-driven assumption that society can modernize itself out of its environmental crisis through greater advancements in technological development also ignores the fact that this process often leads to the creation of other environmental and social problems, which in turn undermines the fundamental goals of stability and sustainability. Civil society needs to be given greater space in the policy and framing processes in order to have a more balanced policy approach to environmental reform in a more equitable way.
Environmental Sociology Meets Science and Technology Studies
Rolf Lidskog and Göran Sundqvist
sociology: the treadmill of production, risk society, and ecological modernization. We conclude that these theories are not clear about either what expertise is or how to balance scientism and powerism. Therefore, we turn to science and technology studies
Franziska von Verschuer
-twentieth century modernization of global agriculture, the international debate on the need for conservation efforts was still in its infancy. Since then, new international regulatory frameworks have consolidated a global system of conservation in which most
Insights from the Lake Naivasha Water Basin in Kenya
This article explores the responses to acknowledged anthropogenic transformations of Lake Naivasha in Kenya, whose ecosystem is considered to have been disturbed by the intensification of agricultural uses of natural resources (notably land and water) over the last half century. It examines the ways in which a “payments for environmental services” (PES) project has been implemented, reflecting the rationale of ecological modernization. This article aims to challenge the environmental narrative that supports the project by revealing its oversimplifications. Empirical data demonstrates how the environmental issues addressed by the project are embedded in historically inherited land trajectories. This in turn forces us to reflect on the necessary question of responsibility, an issue at the heart of the debate since the emergence of the Anthropocene concept.
Richard York, Christina Ergas, Eugene A. Rosa, and Thomas Dietz
We examine trends since 1980 in material extraction in China, India, Indonesia, and Japan—which together contain over 40% of the world's population—to assess the environmental consequences of modernization. Economic and population growth has driven rapid expansion of material extraction in China, India, and Indonesia since 1980. China and India exhibit patterns consistent with the Jevons paradox, where the economic intensity of extraction (extraction/GDP) has steadily declined while total extraction grew. In Indonesia, extraction intensity grew along with total extraction. In Japan, total extraction remained roughly constant, increasing somewhat in the 1980s and then slowly declining after 1990, while extraction intensity declined throughout the entire period. These different patterns can be understood to some degree by drawing on political-economic and world-systems perspectives. Japan is an affluent, core nation that can afford to import materials from other nations, thereby avoiding escalation of material extraction within its borders. China and India are rapidly industrializing nations that, although increasingly drawing on resources from beyond their borders, still rely on their own natural resources for growth. Indonesia, an extraction economy with less global power than the other nations examined here, exports its own natural resources, often unprocessed, to spur economic growth. The trends highlighted here suggest that in order to avert environmental crisis, alternative forms of development, which do not involve traditional economic growth, may need to be adopted by nations around the world.
Richard Widick and John Foran
political sphere. On Being Modern Modernity We understand the noun “modernity” by means of the modified process verb “reflexive modernization” ( Giddens 1990 ). This dynamic, self-conscious modernization is driven by, among other things, the rise of science
An Inconvenient Change
Erland Mårald and Janina Priebe
transformation, the metamorphosis of the world, in Beck's understanding, is the transformative, all-encompassing change of society as a result of the unintended side effects of modernization. From this perspective, the agents of metamorphosis, which initiate the
Where Do the Twain Meet?
C. S. A. (Kris) van Koppen
development as well as philosophical debates on knowledge, science, and society. To illustrate the central problem that he aims to overcome, Jetzkowitz makes an interesting comparison between deep ecology and ecological modernization as contrasting views on
The Importance of the Dark, Star-Filled Skies in Urban Areas
subdue darkness in the process of development and modernization ( Edensor 2015 ). However, this continuous expulsion of darkness not only disrupts ecosystems (for example, Schroer and Hölker 2017 ; van Langevelde et al. 2011 ), but also deprives humans