summed up the achievements that followed from the government’s strategy of economic and social renewal along with modernization. Two films in particular exemplify the tropes of national regeneration—namely, Ieri e oggi (“Yesterday and Today”) and the
Educational Films, National Identity and Citizenship in Italy from 1948 to 1968
modernizing country that implemented secular reforms against the backdrop of Islamic traditional culture. In republican Turkey, Islam, “like all other religions,” was confined to the private sphere, polygamy was prohibited, women went uncovered in public, and
This article analyzes how the fundamental challenge of decolonization has resonated in history textbooks published in France since the 1960s. It therefore contextualizes textbook knowledge within different areas of society and focuses on predominant discourses that influenced history textbooks' (post)colonial representations in the period examined. These discourses encompass the crisis of Western civilization, modernization, republican integration, and the postcolonial politics of memory. The author argues that history textbooks have thus become media, as well as objects of an emerging postcolonial politics of memory that involves intense conflicts over immigration and national identity and challenges France's (post)colonial legacy in general.
In this article I examine the situation of girls in the North Caucasus, a region that combines features of both a traditional society with its emphasis on the value of religion, family, and older generations, and a modernized society with its emphasis on the economic emancipation of women, and the pursuit of self-development and individual life strategies. The research model used interviews with girls and an analysis of essays written by girls in high school to explore their life values, priorities, and the impact of religion and traditions on their lives. The research also sought to identify girls' place in the gender, age, and status hierarchies of local societies.
A Chronological Overview
Despite modernization of the Japanese school system after 1872, this period was marked by the war in East Asia and nationalism focusing on the emperor, whereby the imperial rescript of 1890 defined the core of national education. Following defeat in the Second World War, Japan reformed its education system in accordance with a policy geared towards peace and democracy in line with the United Nations. However, following the peace treaty of 1951 and renewed economic development during the Cold War, the conservative power bloc revised history textbooks in accordance with nationalist ideology. Many teachers, historians and trade unions resisted this tendency, and in 1982 neighboring countries in East Asia protested against the Japanese government for justifying past aggression in history textbooks. As a result, descriptions of wartime misdeeds committed by the Japanese army found their way into textbooks after 1997. Although the ethnocentric history textbook for Japanese secondary schools was published and passed government screening in 2001, there is now a trend towards bilateral or multilateral teaching materials between Japan, South Korea, and China. Two bilateral and one multilateral work have been published so far, which constitute the basis for future trials toward publishing a common textbook.
modernization of the school came the nationalization and streamlining of both the geographical discourse and the colonial discourse as well. 35 East Asia in the German Imagination Despite all historical ascriptions that emphasized the long histories and
Textbooks in Periods of Political Transition after the Second World War
Kira Mahamud Angulo and Anna Ascenzi
consensus and agreed to mutual concessions, in what Share and Mainwaring called a “transition via transaction.” 27 Political transition was preceded by economic liberalization in the 1960s, and modernizing educational reforms towards the end of the same
Kira Mahamud Angulo and Yovana Hernández Laina
conveyed to children was not only insufficient and incomplete but also attempted to link modernization, liberalization, and economic development to a false sense of freedom and sociopolitical wellbeing. Theoretical Framework What is economic culture? As
Nineteenth Century Geography Textbooks and Children’s Books
politiek ), which was itself later criticized by authors like Eduard Douwes Dekker, a former colonial civil servant better known as Multatuli. The official aim of this reform was to economically modernize the territory, especially Java, by way of a
A Burgeoning Field of Research
but also to supply free lessons in modernization. Furthermore, UNESCO instrumentalized educational media in an attempt to ensure “American geopolitical maneuvering.” 18 Probably the only educational film genres that received adequate scholarly