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Two Patterns of Modernization

An Analysis of the Ethnic Issue in Israel

Shlomo Fischer

material and symbolic resources. Origins of the Ethnic Problem in Israel: Differences in the Modernization Experience The Modernization of Eastern European Jews The roots of the dissimilar approaches of Ashkenazim and Mizrahim to the construction of the

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Pınar Melis Yelsalı Parmaksız

Girls might regret only not having been born as male. —Statement in the official newspaper Ulus (Nation), 1939 This article is an inquiry into the gender regime of Turkish modernization, with a focus on the single-party era of the Turkish Republic

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The Visible Woman

Interwar Romanian Women's Writing, Modernity and the Gendered Public/Private Divide

Voichiţa Năchescu

In this article I analyse four novels by four Romanian women writers in order to bring into focus their perspectives on interwar gender roles, urbanisation and modernisation. First, I discuss the concept of 'feminine literature', largely used by (predominantly male) Romanian literary critics to describe literary works by women, as a description of normative femininity rather than an aesthetic category. Second, I argue that through their literary works, Romanian women writers effectively criticised interwar gender roles, more precisely the divide between public masculinity and private femininity, the constraints of women's sexual agency, and the heterosexual romance. Last, I analyse four novels published (mainly) during the interwar period by the Romanian women writers Hortensia Papadat Bengescu (1876-1955), Henriette Yvonne Stahl (1900-1984), Ioana Postelnicu (1910-2004) and Anişoara Odeanu (1912-1972), focussing on the female characters' presence and visibility in the urban public space and on the dynamics of the gaze that polices their behaviour.

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Valentina Mitkova

modernization after the Liberation (1878), the canon embodied the aspirations of the Bulgarian literary history to establish native authors (and culture) within world literature and cultural development. The selective canon tended to be a scene of intense power

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Claudia Weiss, Wie Sibirien “unser” wurde. Die Russische Geographische Gesellschaft und ihr Einfluss auf die Bilder und Vorstellungen von Sibirien im 19. Jahrhundert. Kristina Kuentzel-Witt

Niobe Thompson, Settlers on the Edge: Identity and Modernization on Russia’s Arctic Frontier Patty A. Gray

Susan A. Crate, Cows, Kin, and Globalization: An Ethnography of Sustainability John P. Ziker

Athol Yates and Nicholas Zvegintzov, Siberian BAM Guide: Rail, Rivers & Road David Lempert

Rane Willerslev, Soul Hunters: Hunting, Animism and Personhood among the Siberian Yukahgirs Joseph Long

Books Received for Review

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Harlan Koff

The year 2000 may have marked the modernization of integration

politics in Italy, but immigration has been central to Italian politics

while integration, a secondary component of general immigration

politics, has received significantly less political and academic attention.

Scholars of racial and ethnic integration in Europe have documented

Italy’s fragmented integration model, as being characterized

by: social programs designed to help people; the separation of public

and voluntary sectors; a paternalistic voluntary sector allowing

little space for immigrant self-representation; a lack of continuity;

and difficulties in obtaining citizenship. Until 2000, immigration

politics focused not on qualitative issues regarding the transformation

of Italian society, but on quantitative questions concerning

Italy’s social and economic capacity to absorb migrants.

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What If We Don't Know Our Clan?

The City as New Ritual Form in Buriatiia

Justine Buck Quijada

“Traditionally” Buriat shamanism is clan-based. Ritual practice embedded kinship relations within a sacred geography, linking the living and the dead through a relationship to the landscape, reaffirmed at yearly tailgan ceremonies. In Buriatiia, Soviet modernization transformed the Buriat relationship to the land, and with it, the conditions of shamanic practice. As a result, many urban Buriats either do not know their clan affiliation, or no longer hold clan ceremonies. In response, two urban shaman's organizations have begun to hold tailgans on behalf of the residents of the city. The new ritual form relieves anxiety at the loss of tradition and underscores that loss. However, by redefining the ritual community around the city instead of the clan, the ritual community becomes multiethnic.

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Fabrizio Di Mascio and Alessandro Natalini

The modernization of the public administration has been one of the main objectives pursued by the Renzi government. What distinguishes the reform cycle launched in 2015 is the emphasis on centralization, unification, and the reduction of institutional fragmentation in the public sector after a long period in which autonomy and the organizational pluralism of administrations and government levels were enhanced. This reform strategy is consistent with the underlying trends of transformation in the political and institutional systems, in which the power of the prime minister has gradually increased. The actual impact of these reform measures, however, depends on concrete organizational instruments of subsequent implementing legislation in a context characterized by persistent spending cuts, which are necessary to maintain financial stability.

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David Hine

Economics and finance ministries are among the most important

departments of modern governments. Their overall purpose is to

plan, finance, and co-ordinate public expenditure along a sustainable

long-term trajectory. That role has several dimensions: assessing

departmental spending proposals; ensuring that spending delivers

value; delivering financial resources to meet spending; maintaining

a sustainable balance between fiscal revenues, asset disposals, and

borrowing; managing financial flows across a fiscal year; and ensuring

that these processes are compatible with sectoral policies and

with overall economic targets. The authority to do all this depends

on complex factors: the political backing the ministry gets from other

parts of the government from the prime minister down; the status of

the minister in charge; the compliance of the legislature and of subnational

authorities; the effectiveness of the fiscal, forecasting, authorization,

and inspection machinery; and the ministry’s own capacity

to develop, modernize, and improve the planning and management of

public expenditure programs generally.

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Ceren Belge

This paper examines shifting modalities of government over Bedouins of the Negev. During the first two decades of statehood, Israeli officials approached Bedouins as a relatively quiescent population, based on their understanding that the Bedouins' tribal loyalties guaranteed their aloofness from Palestinian national politics. From the 1970s on, however, Bedouin resistance to Israeli land and settlement policies began to mark the Bedouin increasingly as a 'dangerous population'. As a result, the interest in preserving the Bedouins' cultural specificity gave way to a new emphasis on the need to modernize the Bedouins. The shift in governmental discourse was accompanied by a pluralization in the techniques of government, from an informal 'government of experts' to one in which bureaucratic and impersonal modes of authority competed with expert rule.