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Two Patterns of Modernization

An Analysis of the Ethnic Issue in Israel

Shlomo Fischer

material and symbolic resources. Origins of the Ethnic Problem in Israel: Differences in the Modernization Experience The Modernization of Eastern European Jews The roots of the dissimilar approaches of Ashkenazim and Mizrahim to the construction of the

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Ceren Belge

This paper examines shifting modalities of government over Bedouins of the Negev. During the first two decades of statehood, Israeli officials approached Bedouins as a relatively quiescent population, based on their understanding that the Bedouins' tribal loyalties guaranteed their aloofness from Palestinian national politics. From the 1970s on, however, Bedouin resistance to Israeli land and settlement policies began to mark the Bedouin increasingly as a 'dangerous population'. As a result, the interest in preserving the Bedouins' cultural specificity gave way to a new emphasis on the need to modernize the Bedouins. The shift in governmental discourse was accompanied by a pluralization in the techniques of government, from an informal 'government of experts' to one in which bureaucratic and impersonal modes of authority competed with expert rule.

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Dafna Halperin

This study aims to identify future care preferences and examine the associations between personal resources, filial expectations, and family relations and the preferences of independent elderly Jews and Arabs aged 65 and over, using mixed methods. Data were collected using structured interviews of 168 Jews and 175 Arabs; additionally, 20 Jews and Arabs were interviewed in depth to enable more detailed analysis. The main findings show the effects of the modernization and individualization processes on elder preferences. Significant differences were found between Jews and Arabs for most variables. Whereas Jews' first preference was formal care, with mixed care following as second, Arabs preferred mixed care to other types. Differences in several factors associated with preference for mixed care were also noted, including in categories that were identified in the qualitative phase, such as 'dignity' versus 'honor' and the meaning of 'home'.

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Guest Editors’ Introduction

Resisting Liberalism in Israel—the Case of Marginalized Mizrahim

Nissim Mizrachi and Menachem Mautner

because it endangers the collective boundaries that mold and secure their ‘core identity’. Shlomo Fischer’s article, “Two Patterns of Modernization: An Analysis of the Ethnic Issue in Israel,” casts historical light on the origins of the chasm between

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Menachem Klein

-Zionist residents. He distinguishes between the Zionist immigrants’ modernization projects and local backwardness, and between ‘Westerners’ and ‘Orientals’. Similarly, Israeli historians of Tel Aviv prior to the 1948 War tend to ignore the Zionist city residents

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Yoram Peri and Paul L. Scham

that it is not sui generis . The paradigms that were explored included modernization theories and developmental studies; Israel as a small state or as a Jewish state; and Israeli society as an example of a deeply divided society that uses

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Ephraim Yuchtman-Yaar, Yasmin Alkalay, and Tom Aival

few researchers (e.g., Pollack 2008 ) have noted that until a few decades ago, it was widely assumed that modernization would lead to a weakening of religion. As C. Wright Mills (1959: 32–33) put it: “Once the world was filled with the sacred

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Nissim Leon, Judy Baumel-Schwartz, Amir Paz-Fuchs, and Roy Kreitner

British will inherit and try to modernize. The second line of prehistory relates to Jewish communities in the Diaspora from the Middle Ages through early modernity. These communities tax, but they do so quite differently from the Ottomans. Since they have

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Turkish-Israeli Relations during the Cold War

The Myth of a Long ‘Special Relationship’

Kilic Bugra Kanat

of Israeli tourists traveling to Turkey rose dramatically in the 1990s as a result of the positive atmosphere between the two countries, and the Turkish Air Force became one of Israel Aerospace Industries’ best customers as it modernized Turkish

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Ian S. Lustick

social and economic forces. According to this perspective, industrialization, marketization, modernization, and world war created a desperate need for a Jewish homeland in Palestine and then overpowered imperialist and backward indigenous opposition to