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“What They Had between Their Legs Was a Form of Cash”

Homosexuality, Male Prostitution, and Intergenerational Sex in 1950s Italy

Alessio Ponzio

(adolescents) from poor Roman neighborhoods” went there to hustle, but most of the time the young male prostitutes were criminals who knew “how to exploit every situation to make some money.” Such expert hustlers, the journalist concluded, came to the “club” to

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Gresham's Law, Conceptual Semantics, and Semiotics of Authoritarianism

Do “Bad” Concepts Drive Out “Good” Ones?

Kirill Postoutenko

The aim of this article is to explore to what extent the rule of economics commonly known as Gresham's law (“bad money drives out good money”) can be extrapolated to verbal language (“bad concepts drive out good concepts”). Consequently, the goal of this article is twofold. First, for Gresham's law to be applied simultaneously to money and language, its unfortunate (“good”/“bad”) and obscure (“drives out”) wording should be clarified. Second, one should identify the contexts in which the validity of the law could be assessed best, and run a very preliminary test. For this purpose, the circulation of the adjective (“hard”, “strong”, or “stable” in Russian) in the word combination (“hard currency”) in use in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s was scrutinized.

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Elite de Façade et Mirages de l’Independance

Les Petits Entrepreneurs Etrangers en France dans l’Entre-Deux-Guerres

Claire Zalc

In the literature, immigrant entrepreneurs are described as the élite of the best “integrated” immigrants. Histories of migrant communities all insist on the role of the entrepreneurs as the center of the community and the symbol of social success. In this paper, I will discuss the diverse social meaning attached to being an entrepreneur for an immigrant in Paris during the interwar period. In order to describe the social position of immigrant entrepreneurs, I worked on professional careers, based on the study of more than two hundred applications for French nationality from foreign entrepreneurs during the first half of the twentieth century. It's hard to conclude that there is a one-way social mobility of entrepreneurs, either ascendant or descendent. While some went from the working class to owning a shop, eventually able to spend and save money, others became entrepreneurs as a necessity rather than choice.

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Henry A. Giroux

This article argues that democracy is on life support in the United States. Throughout the social order, the forces of predatory capitalism are on the march—dismantling the welfare state, corrupting politics with outside money, defunding higher education, expanding the corporate-surveillance-military state, widening inequalities in wealth and income, and waging a war on low income and poor minorities. As market mentalities and moralities tighten their grip on all aspects of society, democratic institutions and public spheres are being downsized, if not altogether disappearing. As these institutions vanish—from higher education to health care centers—there is also a serious erosion of the discourses of community, justice, equality, public values, and the common good. This article argues that given this current crisis, educators, artists, intellectuals, youth, and workers need a new political and pedagogical language centered around the notion of radical democracy in order to address the changing contexts and issues facing a world in which capital draws upon an unprecedented convergence of resources—financial, cultural, political, economic, scientific, military, and technological—to exercise powerful and diverse forms of control.

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Clarifying Liquidity

Keynes and Marx, Merchants, and Poets

Rolf Hugoson

mean by “liquidity”? How was this term adopted by their colleagues speaking German, French, or English? What does it mean to a twentieth-century economist? How did money come to flow? Attention to different periods and aims is a challenge but should

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Miriam Shadis

received some estates, notably Bauças, as an inheritance. Sancho affirmed that he expected his son, whichever of them would rule after his death, to abide by this settlement on his sisters. He then distributed his money: 60,000 morabitinos kept in the

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Ulrike Guérot and Michael Hunklinger

European Union—in contrast to goods in the European single market and money in the euro area—are not equal before law is highly problematic. In the EU, the citizens are essentially addressed either only as consumers or employees, but not as citizens. The

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American Quarantine

The Right to Housing in a Pandemic

Bonnie Honig

build a new ship? What would we want it to look like? Such thoughts are almost always stopped in the US with a single question: But where will we find the money for that ? Here, too, the emergency of the current pandemic has been instructive, if we

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Matthew Trundle

smack of the amateur and unprofessional. 7 We might see in such thinking parallels with modern notions of sport—once the domain of the amateur gentlemen, but now entirely professionalized. Winning and money have become the only currencies, rather than

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“Amazing Rapidity”

Time, Public Credit, and David Hume's Political Discourses

Edward Jones Corredera

, Expectations.” 31 Benjamin Franklin, after declaring that time was money, warned his reader: “Beware of thinking all your own that you possess, and of living accordingly. ’Tis a Mistake that many People who have Credit fall into.” 32 Hume, in his frequently