Since the 1994 Rwandan genocide, the current government has arrested approximately 130,000 civilians who were suspected of criminal responsibility. An estimated 2,000 were women, a cohort that remains rarely researched through an ethnographic lens. This article begins to address this oversight by analyzing ethnographic encounters with 8 confessed or convicted female génocidaires from around Rwanda. These encounters reveal that female génocidaires believe they endure gender-based discrimination for having violated taboos that determine appropriate conduct for Rwandan women. However, only female génocidaires with minimal education, wealth, and social capital referenced this gender-based discrimination to minimize their crimes and assert claims of victimization. Conversely, female elites who helped incite the genocide framed their victimization in terms of political betrayal and victor’s justice. This difference is likely informed by the female elites’ participation in the political processes that made the genocide possible, as well as historical precedence for leniency where female elites are concerned.
Female Génocidaires in the Aftermath of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide
Distrust and Duress in Côte d’Ivoire
to norms from the village in family meetings in Abidjan. For instance, he would say, “This is not how my father told me to do it,” or, “It is said that we are born and we will die, but what we have come to do in this world, we need to accomplish
Between Capital and Community
In the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012, the Occupy London protests, informed by the ideal of a moral, territorially defined community, caught the imagination of British and global publics. For a short while, this moral imaginary was mobilized to contest some of the most glaring contradictions of the neo-liberal city. I argue that the Occupy protests in London registered a sense of public outrage at the violation of certain 'sacred' norms associated with what it means to live with others. More concretely, I contend that Occupy London was an experiment initiated to open out questions of community, morality, and politics and to consider how these notions might be put to work. These questions were not merely articulated intellectually among expert interlocutors. They were lived out through the spatially and temporally embodied occupation of urban space.
Resistance to Transitional Justice in Bahrain
potential criticisms: first, it makes no reference to political transformation; and second, it emphasizes mechanisms over norms. As past abuses are frequently only addressed by a new (postauthoritarian) regime, transitional justice often involves an element
The Politics of Kinship and Women's Composite Agency
Sif Lehman Jensen
conflict and precariousness that permeates their everyday lives. The prison marriages enable the women both to insert themselves in the city and to respond to norms and questions of morality, which are socially and politically embedded in the home
Rethinking Resistance to Transitional Justice
Briony Jones and Thomas Brudholm
the way transitional justice is theorized ( Corradetti, Eisikovits, and Rotondi 2015 ; Hirsch 2012 ) and the way in which it is implemented and experienced in practice. Examples of such critiques include accusations of imposition of western norms that
What Can We Learn from Hybridity?
literature on transitional justice in the past ten years has highlighted the lines along which disagreement may surface, for example, lack of cultural sensitivity, imposition of international norms, and accusations of victor’s justice among others, there has
A Masculinities Perspective on the Enduring Warrior Ethos of Rio de Janeiro's Police
Celina Myrann Sørbøe
concept as “the attitudes, values, and norms that are transmitted and shared among groups of individuals in an effort to collectively cope with the common problems and conditions members face.” In Brazil, the police are divided between a Civil and a
Michael D. Jackson
of refugees to speak and act in worlds of their own making? If migrants often transgress moral norms and act outside the law, then we who seek to understand the migrant must reorient our own thinking, and acknowledge the extent to which life
An Exploration of Power and Legitimacy in Transitional Justice
Julie Bernath and Sandra Rubli
( Sriram 2012 ). Burundi is an interesting case in point. While the government formally adhered to international obligations and norms, such as the ratification of the Rome Statute or rhetorical commitment to establish transitional justice mechanisms