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Cècile Mathieu

Translator : Matthew Roy

semiological, concentrating on an iconographic analysis of the engravings associated with the entries. I will examine the engravings both alone and in relation to the entries devoted to ethnonyms and demonyms. French Norms and Dictionaries The linguistic

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Jules Vallès and Séverine

Romantic Socialism and the Afterlife of a Cross-Sex Friendship in French Political Culture, 1880–1929

Michael Mulvey

legitimizing political genealogy. At stake in the Vallès-Séverine friendship was the potential of a cross-sex relation to subvert the gendered social norms of revolutionary political genealogy in the Third Republic. This article is a study of a cross

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Reconsidering Politics as a Man’s World

Images of Male Political Leaders in France and Norway

Anne Krogstad and Aagoth Storvik

Researchers have often pointed to the masculine norms that are integrated into politics. This article explores these norms by studying male images of politics and power in France and Norway from 1945 to 2009. Both dress codes and more general leadership styles are discussed. The article shows changes in political aesthetics in both countries since the Second World War. The most radical break is seen in the way Norwegian male politicians present themselves. The traditional Norwegian leadership ethos of piety, moderation, and inward orientation is still important, but it is not as self-effacing and inelegant as it used to be. However, compared to the leaders in French politics, who still live up to a heroic leadership ideal marked by effortless superiority and seduction, the Norwegian leaders look modest. To explain the differences in political self-presentation and evaluation we argue that cultural repertoires are not only national constructions but also gendered constructions.

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Shadowing the Bar

Studying an English Professional Elite

Justine Rogers

Once the most easily recognizable status profession, the barristers' profession or the Bar is now faced with new regulatory demands, sources of competition and commercial pressures and can, to some extent, be regarded as a contested elite. With methodology at the core of the analysis, this paper addresses the complexities of identifying and studying an historically elite group, especially when, during the research, one is being gently socialized into the ways of the group. In the process, this paper illuminates many of the norms, rituals, and social and psychological dynamics of the Bar, a group aware of its changing position and the threats and opportunities this poses.

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Reinventing Play

Autistic Children and the Normativity of Play in Postwar France

Jonathyne Briggs

In postwar France, the definition of play helped to situate the meaning of childhood in a manner that marginalized disabled children from the common understanding of childhood. Three thinkers—Françoise Dolto, Maud Mannoni, and Fernand Deligny—all advocated more nuanced and open definitions of play that allowed for the recognition of disabled children’s forms of play, which often operated outside of social norms. In their practices, each of these thinkers articulated new interpretations of play that expanded its meaning in social and therapeutic contexts. This recognition was important in questioning the isolation of disabled children, in identifying their belonging among other children, and in revealing the changing boundaries of definitions of childhood.

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The Emotional Disturbances of Old Age

On the Articulation of Old-Age Mental Incapacity in Eighteenth-Century Tuscany

Mariana Labarca

This article explores the role attributed to disturbed emotions in the understanding of old-age mental incapacity in eighteenth-century Tuscany. It claims that interdiction procedures provided a fertile forum for the negotiation of what constituted mental incapacity in old age, which progressively involved a discussion on accepted or proper emotional reactions. Delving into the language employed in interdiction narratives, it argues that references to disturbed emotional states were increasingly employed as a means of providing evidence of disordered states of mind. It also suggests that the constituent elements of mental incapacity and the emotional reactions deemed indicative of its presence were dependent on the familial and sociocultural context in which the behavior was identified. Interdictions thus reveal the articulation of a collective, culturally embedded language of mental incapacity that was profoundly entrenched in the formulation of behavioral norms and the shaping of standards of emotional reaction.

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The “Moral Effect” of Legalized Lawlessness

Violence in Britain’s Twentieth-Century Empire

Caroline Elkins

concerned.” 11 While the outcome of al-Husayni’s appeal hung in an international balance weighted by the realpolitik of fascism’s advances, so too was it calibrated within liberalism’s framework of permissible norms. These norms did not spring from Europe

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Sandbags, Strikes, and Scandals

Public Disorder and Problematic Policing in Occupied Roubaix during World War I

James E. Connolly

on a notion of bourgeois respectability, that dictated what were considered acceptable and unacceptable behaviors under occupation and thus guided conduct. Adherents of this culture expressed disdain for those perceived as breaching its norms by

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“And much more I am soryat for my good knyghts”

Fainting, Homosociality, and Elite Male Culture in Middle English Romance

Rachel E. Moss

establishes his knightly integrity and the justness of his quest for vengeance, even if the target of that quest is the wrong person. In Middle English romances, the physical expression of male emotion serves both to reinforce norms of elite masculine behavior

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The Problem of Modern Pederasty in Queer History

A Case Study of Norman Douglas

Rachel Hope Cleves

considered sexually autonomous. Social norms increasingly question the ability of individuals between eighteen and their early twenties to consent to sex with adults in their thirties and forties, raising the question of whether people within this age range