In this paper I will explore the relationship between social norms – in the sense of regularities in action which embody moral attitudes – and corruption, in contexts of transcultural interaction. There is a great deal of theoretical unclarity in relation to all the key notions involved, namely, social norms, corruption and transcultural interaction, and yet theoretical clarity is a necessary precursor to resolving the empirical and policy issues in this area, including empirical and policy issues of great importance for the future of many countries involved in the process of globalisation. Accordingly, in the first section of this paper I will spend some time on theoretical clarification.1 In the last section of the paper I will make some tentative suggestions concerning the connections between social norms and corruption in transcultural interactions, and illustrate these suggestions by use of two well-known transcultural corruption scandals, namely, Bhopal in India, and Lockheed in Japan. The informing idea here is that examination of such major scandals is likely to reveal underlying institutional conditions and processes which are conducive to corruption, but which go largely unnoticed in the normal course of events; it takes a major corruption scandal to bring these underlying conditions and processes to the surface.2
Performativity, Subversion and the AIDS Poetry of Rafael Campo and Mark Doty
According to Judith Butler, gender, although seemingly essential and fixed, is a series of corporeal acts and gestures which iterate or repeat cultural norms. She argues, in fact, that it is the very citationality of gender that makes it appear natural, inherent and internal. Drawing on Jacques Derrida’s ‘Signature, Event, Context’, an article which argues that the performative speech act is not a singular act but instead ‘a reiteration of a norm or set of norms’, Butler therefore poses the notion of gender as ‘performative’. She is always quick to point out that this does not mean gender is performance, in the sense of being a conscious and optional act. In an Althusserian vein, Butler instead sees the subject as compelled and interpellated into subjectivity through the compulsory imitation and continual citation of gender. Drag, according to Butler, reveals this performativity by its parodic play on gender roles, and she argues that drag can serve a ‘subversive function’
The Great Variety of Readers
David Scott Kastan
Pluralizing has increasingly become a norm of cultural criticism, offering a (literally, if not exclusively) nominal escape from totalization: ‘meanings’ not ‘meaning’; ‘histories’ not ‘history’; and, here, ‘literacies’ not ‘literacy’. The plural forms are neologisms perhaps (as my spell-checker insists), but they are also registers of a discomfort with nouns that imply a singularity of effect belied by the multiple activities and agents that produce it. They mark the scholar’s resistance to monolithic understandings of complex and various cultural phenomena.
Sensation and the Tragedy of the Exceptional Woman in Rhoda Broughton's Good-bye, Sweetheart!
Reading Rhoda Broughton's fourth novel Good-bye, Sweetheart! (1872) as a revision of Germaine de Staël's Corinne (1807), this essay examines Broughton's depiction of the exceptional woman who tragically defies the gender norms of her day. Like Staël's famous improvisatrice, Broughton's rebellious heroine Lenore Herrick dies heartbroken after her fiancé discards her to marry a more docile girl. Significantly, however, Broughton's Victorian protagonist is even more disempowered than her Romantic predecessor; lacking an artistic career like Corinne, Lenore is, finally, a rebel without a cause.
Albert Murray's South to a Very Old Place
Carolyn M. Jones
In her essay, ‘Place in Fiction’, Eudora Welty describes place as identity.1 We put a poetic claim on, give a name to, a part of landscape that has put a claim on us. Place, therefore, is space to which meaning has been ascribed2 – as Scott Romine expresses it ‘a network of imperatives, codes, norms, limitations, duties, obligations and relationships’.3 As we name, therefore, we create, as Welty describes it, a crossroads, ‘a proving ground’.4 That place is the South, and the South is the ground of the novel. Yet, so often, as Barbara Ladd reminds us, place can become ‘something phantasmagoric … something longed lost and longed for … a locus of desire’ – a dream rather than a reality. Can place, she asks, function, become viable, dynamic and vital?
Music, Victorian Masculinity and Dante Gabriel Rossetti
The masculinity of the Victorian painter-poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) has always been a subject of intense interest for scholars of nineteenth-century British literature and art history. The question ‘how manly was Rossetti?’ resurfaces every so often, and answers have always been varied. Jay D. Sloan’s ‘Attempting “Spheral Change”: D.G. Rossetti, Victorian Masculinity and the Failure of Passion’ (2004) positions Rossetti as a nonconformist, a man who rejected gender norms and sought to express his manhood through a rhetoric of passion. Sloan’s argument provides a neat contrast to one provided by Herbert Sussman in Victorian Masculinities: Manhood and Masculine Poetics in Early Victorian Literature and Art (1995), in which Sussman argues that Rossetti crafted a ‘Bohemian’ model of manhood that, despite its veneer of otherness, allowed room for ‘masculine’ expressions of a normative nature.
Dracula, Penny Dreadful, and the Logic of Repetition
Dracula (NBC / Sky Living, 2013–14) and Penny Dreadful (Showtime / Sky Atlantic, 2014–) are two reimaginings of classic nineteenth-century novels that can help us better understand how adaptations function in a media landscape dominated by a logic of repetition and convergence, where sequels, reboots, and remakes have become the norm. While Dracula adapts Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel, with the eponymous character arriving in London posing as an American entrepreneur in order to defeat an evil secret society, Penny Dreadful offers viewers a mélange of classic nineteenth-century Gothic novels in the style of Moore and O’Neill’s The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (1999–). What distinguishes the two series is the way in which they employ instances of simultaneous adaptation and appropriation in their character building, to the extent that Dracula or Penny Dreadful’s Ethan Chandler can more easily be read as mergers of iconic characters, images, and types.
Explorations of Gender in Dracula and Penny Dreadful
down her chin and stains the ‘purity of her lawn death-robe’, showing her impurity and the subversion of female norms her vampiric form presents in staining the purity of her self. In order to restore Lucy ‘as a holy, and not an unholy, memory’, Arthur
ambition which o’erleaps itself / And falls on th’other –’ (I.vii.25–28; emphasis mine). When he states the reasons for which the heinous act of regicide should not take place, Macbeth underscores ‘the ethical and ideological norms of loyalty, kinship, and
Katherine Hennessey and Margaret Litvin
contemporary debates about Egyptian social norms. A striking irony emerges from this analysis and its focus on filial (im)piety: celebrated actor Yaḥyā al-Fakharānī suggested the Lear adaptation, believing that the theme of ungrateful children would resonate