common to many development programs. As Jason Hart (2008) has explained, participation in these programs is perceived to transform relationships between adults and children so as to realize children’s rights. Children’s participation, which is often
Are Helplines Useful?
Girl Scouts and the Leadership Development of Girls
Girl Scouts of the USA is the largest organization for girls in the world, with 2.8 million members and more than 50 million American women as alumnae since the first troop was organized in 1912. Although the organization's mission statement has evolved over the years, Girl Scouts has always been focused on training girls to be responsible and resourceful citizens, and, for the past ten years, there has been a renewed focus on leadership development and the empowerment of girls. Through content analysis of the National Leadership Journey books for each program level of Girl Scouting, I explore three specific themes that are emphasized in this new curriculum. Since National Leadership Journey books are now part of the Girl Scout experience from elementary to high school, these messages concerning leadership development could have an impact on millions of girls across the United States.
Gender Role Changes in Alaska
Judith Kleinfeld and Maria Elena Reyes
The gender gap in college enrollment and completion has become a concern in many nations. The phenomenon is extreme in Alaska, particularly among indigenous people. Semi-structured interviews with 162 urban and indigenous students graduating from high school, and in addition, two single-gender focus groups, suggest that many young men do not see a college education as necessary to financial success and do not expect to assume the gender role of sole family provider. Young women tend to see a college degree as essential to changed gender roles where women are expected to attend college, pursue a career, and not be dependent on a man for financial support. Many young men withdraw from the demands of a verbally-saturated high school curriculum, which they find unenjoyable. Both young men and young women tend to label male withdrawal from school as “male laziness,” an essentialist interpretation rather than an interpretation based on the school environment and changing gender roles.
Reading the Self into Girlfriendship
, rather than drawing a line between discourses of girlhood and actual girls, in this article I aim to theorize the mechanisms through which the self is actively implicated within such discourses via participation in online texts. Understanding Digital
Activist Girl of Early Twentieth Century Japan
own experiences. Rather, in addition to raising funds, she spoke in order to make clear that there could be no social freedom without women's emancipation and that it was necessary to discuss proletarian movement participation from a woman's point of
Formative Experiences and Identity in Peasant Childhood
’s participation in agrarian work in the daily social construction of contrasting identities. Specifically, I explore the meaning of work for girls as learning that builds their identities as peasants in the contemporary world. Regulatory definitions of children
Some Research Perspectives
Adam White and Stefan Robinson
key variables (rejecting masculinizing discourses, participation figures, and self-removal when injured), we propose that young men may be decreasingly inclined to engage in injurious activities that may be risky to their health. The conflicting views
young women, capitalism and Cuban hip hop culture
This article explores female representation in mainstream hip hop culture in Cuba as a case study for analyzing how the presence of a commercial recording industry affects girls' participation as artists at the community level. The author raises questions about the role of a commercial recording industry, within a neoliberal political culture, in skewing youth culture from its underground roots, and about how young women navigate and resist such challenges in order to participate in hip hop culture.
Adolescent African American Boys' Response to Gender Scripting
Lionel C. Howard
This article focuses on the ways in which a select group of adolescent African American males respond to gender scripts. Drawing on interview and focus group data, the article describes four different responses to messages they receive from peers and significant adults about socio-culturally appropriate behaviors and characteristics of masculinity: 1) adapting or modifying their presentations of self, 2) internalizing ascribed gender scripts, 3) resisting, and 4) remaining conflicted about an appropriate response. Narratives highlight the complexity of gender identity development and active participation of African American boys in the construction of a masculine identity that feels most authentic, as well as the role of agents of socialization on identity.
This paper is based on longitudinal, ethnographic research with young people from ages 10-18 growing up in urban, low-income, immigrant communities of color and how they represented their everyday lives and family-school relationships through photography and video. The author analyzes the similarities and differences between the boys’ and girls’ perceptions, participation in, and representations of their care worlds and how this shapes their identities. The article features the themes of love, care and solidarity that were central to the boys’ understandings and identities, re-casting widely held assumptions about the crisis of Black boyhood that preoccupy current educational discourse.