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Joan Njagi

common to many development programs. As Jason Hart (2008) has explained, participation in these programs is perceived to transform relationships between adults and children so as to realize children’s rights. Children’s participation, which is often

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Girltopia

Girl Scouts and the Leadership Development of Girls

Angela High-Pippert

Girl Scouts of the USA is the largest organization for girls in the world, with 2.8 million members and more than 50 million American women as alumnae since the first troop was organized in 1912. Although the organization's mission statement has evolved over the years, Girl Scouts has always been focused on training girls to be responsible and resourceful citizens, and, for the past ten years, there has been a renewed focus on leadership development and the empowerment of girls. Through content analysis of the National Leadership Journey books for each program level of Girl Scouting, I explore three specific themes that are emphasized in this new curriculum. Since National Leadership Journey books are now part of the Girl Scout experience from elementary to high school, these messages concerning leadership development could have an impact on millions of girls across the United States.

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Boys Left Behind

Gender Role Changes in Alaska

Judith Kleinfeld and Maria Elena Reyes

The gender gap in college enrollment and completion has become a concern in many nations. The phenomenon is extreme in Alaska, particularly among indigenous people. Semi-structured interviews with 162 urban and indigenous students graduating from high school, and in addition, two single-gender focus groups, suggest that many young men do not see a college education as necessary to financial success and do not expect to assume the gender role of sole family provider. Young women tend to see a college degree as essential to changed gender roles where women are expected to attend college, pursue a career, and not be dependent on a man for financial support. Many young men withdraw from the demands of a verbally-saturated high school curriculum, which they find unenjoyable. Both young men and young women tend to label male withdrawal from school as “male laziness,” an essentialist interpretation rather than an interpretation based on the school environment and changing gender roles.

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The Girl in the GIF

Reading the Self into Girlfriendship

Akane Kanai

, rather than drawing a line between discourses of girlhood and actual girls, in this article I aim to theorize the mechanisms through which the self is actively implicated within such discourses via participation in online texts. Understanding Digital

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Sakai Magara

Activist Girl of Early Twentieth Century Japan

Barbara Hartley

own experiences. Rather, in addition to raising funds, she spoke in order to make clear that there could be no social freedom without women's emancipation and that it was necessary to discuss proletarian movement participation from a woman's point of

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Girls’ Work in a Rural Intercultural Setting

Formative Experiences and Identity in Peasant Childhood

Ana Padawer

’s participation in agrarian work in the daily social construction of contrasting identities. Specifically, I explore the meaning of work for girls as learning that builds their identities as peasants in the contemporary world. Regulatory definitions of children

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Boys, Inclusive Masculinities and Injury

Some Research Perspectives

Adam White and Stefan Robinson

key variables (rejecting masculinizing discourses, participation figures, and self-removal when injured), we propose that young men may be decreasingly inclined to engage in injurious activities that may be risky to their health. The conflicting views

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Raperas of the NeoRevolución

young women, capitalism and Cuban hip hop culture

Ardath Whynacht

This article explores female representation in mainstream hip hop culture in Cuba as a case study for analyzing how the presence of a commercial recording industry affects girls' participation as artists at the community level. The author raises questions about the role of a commercial recording industry, within a neoliberal political culture, in skewing youth culture from its underground roots, and about how young women navigate and resist such challenges in order to participate in hip hop culture.

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Performing Masculinity

Adolescent African American Boys' Response to Gender Scripting

Lionel C. Howard

This article focuses on the ways in which a select group of adolescent African American males respond to gender scripts. Drawing on interview and focus group data, the article describes four different responses to messages they receive from peers and significant adults about socio-culturally appropriate behaviors and characteristics of masculinity: 1) adapting or modifying their presentations of self, 2) internalizing ascribed gender scripts, 3) resisting, and 4) remaining conflicted about an appropriate response. Narratives highlight the complexity of gender identity development and active participation of African American boys in the construction of a masculine identity that feels most authentic, as well as the role of agents of socialization on identity.

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Growing Up a Girl in a Developing Country

Challenges for the Female Body in Education

Mathabo Khau

Girls' reproductive health matters are an important factor in their equal participation in educational settings. However, many girls worldwide still face challenges to participating fully in education because of the lack of supportive structures for their health needs. This paper uses autoethnographic writing to highlight some of the challenges that girls meet in school because of menstruation. It also discusses how a teacher's lived experiences of girlhood can change how she practises her teacher-hood in relation to girls' reproductive health. I argue that teachers' lived experiences are an invaluable resource in curricula- and policy-making procedures that are formulated to better recognize the particular concerns of girls and young women.