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Eliana Elisabeth Diehl and Esther Jean Langdon

Brazil’s Unified Health System ( Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]) was created in 1990, establishing the principles of universal access, equity, integrality and social participation. SUS is based on decentralization, municipal administration of

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Suzanne Graham and Victoria Graham

English abstract: Apart from Mauritius, five of the six African small island developing States (ASIDS) are relatively new to democracy with several only transitioning from one-party states to multiparty states in the early 1990s. Goals 13 and 14 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are priority goals for the ASIDS. Given that one of the key tests of a healthy democracy is the depth of civil society, this article seeks to examine the quality of political participation in the ASIDS in relation to these two priority SDGs. In so doing, this article considers conventional and nonconventional forms of participation and the potential impact these different avenues for a public “voice” might or might not have on the ASIDS’ government management of climate change and marine resources.

Spanish abstract: Excepto Mauritius, los otros cinco pequeños estados insulares africanos en desarrollo (ASIDS en inglés) recién incursionan en la democracia; algunos de ellos transitan de estados con un solo partido a estados múlti-partidistas a principios de los años noventa. Los objetivos 13 y 14 de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sustentable (ODS) son prioritarios para los ASIDS. Considerando que una prueba de democracia sana es una sociedad civil robusta, este artículo examina la calidad de la participación política en los ASIDS en relación con estos dos ODS. El artículo considera las formas convencionales y no convencionales de participación y el impacto potencial que estas distintas vías de “voz” pública pueda tener en el manejo del cambio climático y los recursos marinos de las ASIDS.

French abstract: A l’exception de l’île Maurice, cinq des six petits états îles en dévelopement (PEID) d’Afrique sont relativement nouveaux en matière de démocratie dans la mesure où certains ont uniquement transité du parti unique au multipartisme au début des années 90. Treize des quatorze ODD sont prioritaires pour les PEID. En partant du constat qu’une des preuves clefs d’une démocratie saine réside dans l’amplitude de la société civile, cet article cherche à examiner la qualité de la participation politique dans les PEID en relation avec deux ODD prioritaires. Ainsi, l’article considère des formes de participation conventionnelles et non conventionnelles ainsi que leur impact potentiel sur une expression publique en particulier, à savoir l’existence d’une gestion gouvernementale des PEID d’Afrique en matière de changement climatique et de ressources marines.

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Avoidance of Military Service in Israel

Exploring the Role of Discourse

Oren Livio

This study examines the use of the derogatory term mishtamtim (literally, 'shirkers') for Israeli citizens who do not serve in the military, as employed in a variety of widely circulating cultural texts and in several focus group discussions. I suggest that in addition to revealing and reflecting Israeli society's dominant views and opinions on military service and its relation to civil society, the inherent ambiguity of the mishtamtim label enables interlocutors to construct different notions of the Israeli collective, which are then translated into different patterns of inclusion and exclusion, hierarchies of citizenship, and disciplinary meas ures. In addition, the discursive construction of non-service as avoidance of participation in a symbolic, non-violent, civilianized, and benevolent contribution to the collective conceals the military's own tendency to discharge conscripts, as well as its inherently violent nature and the role that violence plays in providing the glue that keeps society together.

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Conceiving Judaism

The Challenges of Same-Sex Parenthood

Sibylle Lustenberger

In Israel, personal status is regulated through religious law. This gives Orthodox rabbis the state-sanctioned power to define who is Jewish and to enable and recognize marriage. The impediments that religious law poses to same-sex couples and their children are serious: same-sex couples are excluded from marriage, and their children's religious status is at risk. In this article, I contrast these rabbinic exclusions with the ways that same-sex couples, both religious and non-religious, use Jewish traditions to establish social legitimacy and belonging for themselves and their children. Based on ethnographic findings, the article suggests that the Jewish ritual of circumcision for boys and childbirth celebrations for girls are moments in which relationships are reaffirmed. Even more so, the social networks displayed at these events and the participation of religious specialists (mohalim) performing the circumcision carry a clear message: these families are authentically a part of the Jewish-Israeli collective despite rabbinic opposition.

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Yehuda Bar Shalom, Educating Israel: Educational Entrepreneurship in Israel’s Multicultural Society Review by Yehuda Jacobson and Diana Luzzatto

James Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War Review by Ziva Flamhaft

Sharon Lang, Sharaf Politics: Honor and Peacemaking in Israeli-Palestinian Society Review by Madelaine Adelman

Ussama Makdisi and Paul A. Silverstein, eds., Memory and Violence in the Middle East and North Africa Review by Vered Vinitzky-Seroussi

Assaf Meydani and Shlomo Mizrahi, Public Policy between Society and Law: The Supreme Court, Political Participation, and Policy Making Review by Guy Seidman

Ilan Peleg, Democratizing the Hegemonic State: Political Transformation in the Age of Identity Review by William Safran

Alon Tal, Pollution in a Promised Land: An Environmental History of Israel Review by Oren Perez

David A. Wesley, State Practices and Zionist Images: Shaping Economic Development in Arab Towns in Israel Review by Dan Bavly

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Each Female Fan Has Her Own Story

Three Fandom Autoethnographies

Tamar Rapoport and Efrat Noy

This article advocates autoethnography as a critical feminist methodology for using personal testimony to investigate women’s experience and performance of fandom The article’s centerpiece is an analysis of the personal testimonies of three women—researcher-fans of different ages—of a fan-owned club Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem. In addition to revealing women’s gendered-based experiences and the different ways in which women acquire and perform fandom, their personal stories prove valuable for exposing the gendered regime of the football field. Moreover, they reveal how women who are not fluent in the hegemonic language of fandom make their way in the fandom field as they seek their own voice and position in it. The analysis suggests that women’s participation can disrupt the hegemonic masculinity of fandom and challenge its established boundaries, thereby problematizing accepted definitions of the authentic fan.

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The Determination of Educational Policy

Shas, Politics, and Religion

Anat Feldman

political party participation. This review of Israeli education policy regarding minorities may also interest those wishing to better understand the Israeli national context. Since Shas’s educational network was founded, there has been a large increase in

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Israel Goes to the Polls

The Road to Elections for the Constituent Assembly, 1948–1949

Meir Chazan

perceived as inaccessible. This was revealed in full force during the discussions on how to conduct propaganda in the army, the technical arrangements for voting, and the structuring of the active and passive participation of soldiers and officers in the

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Lena Saleh and Mira Sucharov

-Israel bias in the US mainstream media; the appropriateness of the ‘apartheid’ label to Israel/Palestine; the exemption of Orthodox Jews from service in the Israel Defense Forces; the formal political participation of Palestinian citizens of Israel; and the

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Ken Stein, Yael Berda, Galia Golan, Pnina Peri, Yuval Benziman, Dalia Gavriely-Nuri, Muzna Awayed-Bishara, and Aziza Khazzoom

noted as well that many in the New Yishuv refused to see women’s equal participation as a major issue. The New Yishuv was composed largely of socialists whose worldview—in principle—supported women’s equality and saw women’s rights as a given, but their