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Alena Minchenia

and political changes and encompasses a continuum from protests’ supporters to activists. The second factor relates to participation in protests as a professional activity and includes such actors as journalists, civil right defenders, experts, and

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Introduction

War Veterans and the Construction of Citizenship Categories

Nikkie Wiegink, Ralph Sprenkels, and Birgitte Refslund Sørensen

citizenship. Our studies draw attention to patriotism and participation in a particular armed struggle as markers for inclusion in the polity (see Metsola, this section), which broadens the analysis of identity markers often associated with citizenship such as

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Introduction

The Generative Power of Political Emotions

Mette-Louise Johansen, Therese Sandrup, and Nerina Weiss

Abstract

Moral outrage has until now been conceptualized as a call to action, a reaction to injustice and transgressions, and a forceful motor for democratic participation, acts of civil disobedience, and violent and illicit action. This introduction goes beyond linear causality between trigger events, political emotions, and actions to explore moral outrage as it is experienced and expressed in contexts of political violence, providing a better understanding of that emotion’s generic power. Moral outrage is here understood as a multidimensional emotion that may occur momentarily and instantly, and exist as an enduring process and being-in-the-world, based on intergenerational experiences of violence, state histories, or local contexts of fear and anxiety. Because it appears in the intersubjective field, moral outrage is central for identity politics and social positioning, so we show how moral outrage may be a prism to investigate and understand social processes such as mobilization, collectivities, moral positioning and responsiveness, and political violence.

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Rwandan Women No More

Female Génocidaires in the Aftermath of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide

Erin Jessee

Since the 1994 Rwandan genocide, the current government has arrested approximately 130,000 civilians who were suspected of criminal responsibility. An estimated 2,000 were women, a cohort that remains rarely researched through an ethnographic lens. This article begins to address this oversight by analyzing ethnographic encounters with 8 confessed or convicted female génocidaires from around Rwanda. These encounters reveal that female génocidaires believe they endure gender-based discrimination for having violated taboos that determine appropriate conduct for Rwandan women. However, only female génocidaires with minimal education, wealth, and social capital referenced this gender-based discrimination to minimize their crimes and assert claims of victimization. Conversely, female elites who helped incite the genocide framed their victimization in terms of political betrayal and victor’s justice. This difference is likely informed by the female elites’ participation in the political processes that made the genocide possible, as well as historical precedence for leniency where female elites are concerned.

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Pac'Stão versus the City of Police

Contentious Activism Facing Megaprojects, Authoritarianism, and Violence

Einar Braathen

and asks what happens to community activism when the state brings a large-scale urban development program to a socially disadvantaged area (e.g., the favelas), where the official policy of the government is “social participation” in any development

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Unbecoming Veteranship

Convicted Military Officers in Post-authoritarian Argentina

Eva van Roekel and Valentina Salvi

). However, the often-contradicting outcomes of war show that military citizenship as a “state of exception” largely creates unstable and volatile domains of action and participation ( Trundle 2012b: 360 ), sometimes creating spaces of leverage for claiming

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Adopting a Resistance Lens

An Exploration of Power and Legitimacy in Transitional Justice

Julie Bernath and Sandra Rubli

were reprimanded for having failed to conform to the expectations toward their participation in the proceedings. When civil parties expressed feelings of revenge and anger in Case 001, some judicial officials at the ECCC required them not only to

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Invisible Veterans

Defeated Militants and Enduring Revolutionary Social Values in Dhufar, Oman

Alice Wilson

Participation in organized political violence creates lasting material and social legacies for veteran combatants. Insights into how state authorities, veterans, and other citizens create former combatant identities have mostly emerged from

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The Debts of War

Bifurcated Veterans’ Mobilization and Political Order in Post-settlement El Salvador

Ralph Sprenkels

approach. Acknowledging that armed movements produce “histories and legacies [that] shape the nature and quality of [postwar] rule” (Southall 2013: 1), I explore how wartime participation might provide a platform for political mobilization in post

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Introduction

Post-Conflict Dynamics in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Identities, Nationalization, and Missing Bodies

Katerina Seraïdari

people can be socioeconomically empowered during or after the explosion of violence. The place of women in society is, for example, influenced by war. Speaking about the participation of Greek women in the Civil War from 1946 to 1949, Janet Hart (1996