In the United States, while some race-based policies such as affirmative action have faced often successful political and legal challenges over the last quartercentury, historically, the very principle of official racial classification has met with much less resistance. The Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment, according to which “no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws,” was not originally intended to incorporate a general rule of “color blindness.” And when in California, in 2003, the “Racial Privacy Initiative” led to a referendum on a measure—Proposition 54—demanding that “the state shall not classify any individual by race, ethnicity, color or national origin,” this restriction was meant to apply exclusively to the operation of public education, public contracting or public employment, that is, the three sites where affirmative action was once in effect and might be reinstated at some point, or so the proponents of that initiative feared. In any case, that measure was roundly defeated at the polls.
The Controversy over "Statistiques Ethniques"
Daniel Sabbagh and Shanny Peer
This view is expressed by Archon Fung, 19 May 2014, Boston Review , bostonreview.net/forum/saving-privacy/archon-fung-response-saving-privacy">http://www.bostonreview.net/forum/saving-privacy/archon-fung-response-saving-privacy">bostonreview.net/forum/saving-privacy/archon-fung-response-saving-privacy
Social Media from Modiano to Zola and Proust
innovations in news reporting, from telegrams to lithographs to photographic reproduction, were quickly emulated in France. 12 The interview, for example, was an American import of the 1870s, criticized as a violation of privacy since writers were interviewed
. Given his political ambition and subsequent worldwide stature, Senghor probably knew that the privacy of letters could be easily violated; when he voiced criticism, it was usually with regards to the limitations of his own studies. For instance, feeling
true for all the soldiers. But with the lack of freedom, privacy, time, space or even a basic table on which to write, the intellectuals had never felt so strongly about where they came from and how remote from their backgrounds they had become. In some
Laura Levine Frader, Ian Merkel, Jessica Lynne Pearson, and Caroline Séquin
sight of public sex by confining men's supposed sexual needs to the privacy of the brothel, the urinal enabled men to move about the city, unencumbered by their biological needs. These two places operated according to a similar logic. They both served as
Diplomacy, Ethics, and Competition in the French World of Adoption
(London: Pluto Press, 2015). 13 Some names and identifying details (including exact locations) have been changed in order to protect the privacy of individuals discussed here. 14 A book containing more detailed information on the various studies that