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Michael B. Loughlin

Hervéism gradually emerged as a quixotic crusade attempting to unite the extreme Left in order to prevent war, promote socialism, and—presumably—incite revolution. By the time French socialists unified in April 1905, the Hervéistes or Insurrectionels were

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Socialisms in the Tsarist Borderlands

Poland and Finland in a Contrastive Comparison, 1830—1907

Wiktor Marzec and Risto Turunen

There are probably few ism concepts that have influenced European political trajectories at the turn of the twentieth century more profoundly than socialism . This concept was at the vortex of the great transformation of European societies into

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Jules Vallès and Séverine

Romantic Socialism and the Afterlife of a Cross-Sex Friendship in French Political Culture, 1880–1929

Michael Mulvey

political consciousness of the imminent revolutionary moment when the French people would re-make an unjust world. 11 As Séverine put it, Vallès taught her to practice romantic socialism: “to see, to hear, and to meditate—to sympathize, especially with the

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"Everyday Heroines"

Nazi Visions of Motherhood in Mutterliebe (1939) and Annelie (1941)

Jo Fox

National Socialism idealized maternal bravery, selflessness, devotion, and sacrifice as essential to the health of the nation, particularly in the context of World War II. This article critically assesses the Third Reich's projection of and women's reactions to the national cult of motherhood in Gustav Ucicky's Mutterliebe (Mother Love, 1939) and Josef von Baky's Annelie (1941). Though supported by a wide range of state-sponsored socio-economic initiatives and marketing strategies, these films reveal significant tensions between the ways women imagined themselves and the lives that the regime attempted to dictate for them. Because Nazi cinema also offered female viewers the opportunity to engage in escapist fantasies of adventure and romance, making dutiful motherhood appealing was always a challenge, and grew increasingly difficult as material hardships increased over the course of the war.

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Franz A. Birgel

Characterized by Siegfried Kracauer as "the first and last German film that overtly expressed a Communist viewpoint," Kuhle Wampe (1932) is also noteworthy for being the only film on which Bertolt Brecht collaborated from beginning to end, as well as for its controversial censorship in the tumultuous political context of the late Weimar Republic. When set against the background of the 1920 Motion Picture Law and the censorship of two other high-profile films—Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin and Lewis Milestone's All Quiet on the Western Front—the political history of Kuhle Wampe highlights the indecisiveness, fragility, and fears of the German Left as the Nazis prepared to take power.

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A Specter Is Haunting Germany--the French Specter of Milieu

On the Nomadicity and Nationality of Cultural Vocabularies

Wolf Feuerhahn

Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, and Isabelle Stengers fought against a state-controlled form of science and saw “nomadic science/concepts” as a way to escape from it. The transnational history of the term milieu marks a good opportunity to contribute to another theory of nomadic vocabularies. Traveling from France to Germany, the word milieu came to be identified as a French theory. Milieu was seen as an expression of determinism, of the connection between the rise of the natural sciences and the rise of socialism, and it deterred the majority of German academics. Umwelt was thus coined as an “antimilieu” expression. This article defends a “transnational historical semantic” against the Koselleckian history of concepts and its a priori distinctions between words and concepts. Instead of taking its nature for granted, a transnational historical semantic investigation should analyze the terminological and national status given to the objects of investigation by the term's users.

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Editorial

Ism Concepts in Science and Politics

Jani Marjanen

particular text. Today, it would be difficult to think of isms without including words such as liberalism, socialism, feminism, or multiculturalism, but none of these words were used in the eighteenth century. Still, a notion of ism words existed, and the

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Bridging the Political Gaps

The Interdiscursive Qualities of Political Romanticism in the Weimar Republic

Christian E. Roques

which a new form of socialism is emerging, a socialism defined by its defiance of the traditional, old Marxist form, which tries to conceive of the future in a different way—as corporatist and democratic, organic, and self-governed. 31 Rubinstein

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Eugenia Gay, Philipp Nielsen, Emanuel Richter, and Gregor Feindt

, Poststalinism Pavel Kolář inquires into the history of socialism as a processual ideology. Much of the existing literature on state socialism centers on the establishment of socialist dictatorships around 1948, the years of Stalinism, and late socialism from

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Pivots and Levers

Political Rhetoric around Capitalism in Britain from the 1970s to the Present

Neil Foxlee

political communication. Occurrences of Capitalism in Hansard Although the first use of capitalist—in the sense of “man of money”—in Hansard was recorded as far back as 1807, capitalism does not appear until 1889. ( Socialist and socialism , by