resulted in an increasing number of initiatives developed to support girls, especially in poorer countries. Many of the programs for marginalized girls employ what are known as safe spaces—sometimes referred to as child friendly spaces—that are places in
Annabel Erulkar and Girmay Medhin
Discursive Constructions of Girls-only Spaces for Learning Popular Music
This article elaborates on discursive constructions of girls-only settings through the spatial metaphor of a room of one's own, as articulated in round-table discussions among staff and participants from girl-centered music programs in Sweden. The idea of a separate room refers to spaces for collective female empowerment as well as for individual knowledge acquisition and creativity. These spaces are constructed so as to provide the possibility for exploration, subjectivity, and focus, by offering (partial and temporary) escape from competition and control, from a gendered and gendering gaze, and from distraction. Girl-centered programs are also discussed as paradoxical because they function as gender-neutral when seen from the inside, but gender-specific when seen from the outside.
James E. Cutting, Catalina Iricinschi, and Kaitlin L. Brunick
This article presents a new method to create maps that chart changes across a cinematic narrative. These are unlike narrative spaces previously discussed in the literature—they are abstract, holistic, dynamic representations based on objective criteria. The analysis considers three films (All About Eve, Inception, and MASH) by counting the co-occurrences of main characters within scenes, and 12 Angry Men by counting their co-occurrences within shots. The technique used combines the statistical methods of correlation, multidimensional scaling, and Procrustes analysis. It then plots the trajectories of characters across these spaces in All About Eve and Inception, regions for characters in Inception and MASH, and compares the physical arrangement of jurors with their dramatic roles in 12 Angry Men. These maps depict the changing structures in the visual narrative. Finally, through consideration of statistical learning, the article explores the plausibility that these maps mimic relations in the minds of film viewers.
Film studies inspired by the theories of British psychoanalyst Donald W. Winnicott are scanty. Although this may be partly explained by Winnicott's own somewhat unenthusiastic attitude toward cinema, it should be fruitful to approach film, in both its form and content, by taking into consideration the relevance of some of his ideas. These include in particular the concepts of mirroring and transitional space, especially in relation to the idea of a bridge space connecting external reality to its filmed representation, as well as the latter to reality as perceived by the viewer's gaze. Winnicott's developmental model of mental processes could prove useful for an understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of cinema, as well as for providing original interpretations of individual films.
space. Jasmin and Olivia live in eastern Helsinki, Finland, and use the metro every day when they travel to school, pursue their hobbies, or meet friends. As part of the city, the metro can be seen, as media scholar Myria Georgiou puts it, as
the lived body and its relationship with a shifting identity. They document the experiences of two teenage girls (French Marieme and British Mia, both 15 years of age) in the spatially and socially marginal spaces of a Parisian cité and an East
Space, Time, and Text
Benjamin C. Fortna
on educational change, the commodification of learning, and biography. I argue that several processes that had begun in the late Ottoman period, including the differentiation of educational space, the stratification of learning, and the supplanting
Friedrich Ratzel’s Impact on German Education from the Wilhelmine Empire to the Third Reich
man’s spread across and use of the earth one must have a firm grasp of spatial relations and the struggle for space. According to Ratzel’s world view, the expansion of mankind and its work across the earth’s surface bears all the traits of a moving
Privacy and Leisure in the Victorian Girl's Bedroom
Sonya Sawyer Fritz
In this article I analyze various representations of the Victorian girl's experiences with the bedroom in order to illuminate how the Victorian ideal often erased for girls the distinction between public and private that the bedroom created in the home, even as this room became more and more common as a private space allocated to girls. Though it offered girls opportunities to pursue their own interests and desires, the sanctuary of the bedroom also proved to be complicated and compromised by the familial responsibilities that followed girls there. I argue that Victorian portrayals of the girl's relationship with her bedroom reflect the unique tensions between public and private that girls of the period experienced as they navigated the variety of socio-cultural expectations placed upon them.
Sexual Self-Construction in Adolescent Internet Spaces
The teen-targeted website gURL. com is committed to providing educational information about sexuality and sexual health to young girls. In this article, I analyze girls' conversations posted on the site to explore how girls mediate the factual information presented, and how they challenge the borders of the scientific discourse on adolescent sexuality. Without overvaluing the freedom of online environments, I assume that the relatively unregulated space of the Internet encourages young women to create their narratives about sexuality and to imagine themselves as sexual beings. My assumptions are informed by the analyses of Susan Driver (2005), Barclay Barrios (2004) and Susannah Stern (2002): in contrast to the disempowering and alienating effects of institutional policies, I call for the recognition of less regulated sites, which imagine youth not as passive recipients but as active agents who strategically work on developing their understanding of sexuality, and on exploring their sexual selves.