In this brief research note, the author uses a sociohistoric lens to examine selected films that have employed the cholo, or Chicano gang member, stereotype. He finds that the cholo is a prevalent archetype of Mexican and Mexican American youth. The author argues that the depiction of the cholo as a hypermasculine, abject personage threatening the social order converges with how actual Latino youth are constructed in sociopolitical and media discourses—as both marginalized young men and migrants unworthy of membership in U.S. society.
The Chicano Gang Stereotype in Sociohistoric Context
A Comedic Film between History and Memory
French bourgeois. As Rabine noted, Pivert was himself a stereotype. The Mythical Bourgeois The film historian Jean-Pierre Jeancolas lamented that the cinematic season of 1973–1974 confirmed one truth about French cinema: comedy was “a dead genre.” 36 The
Stereotypes, Risk and National Identity in a Spanish Enclave in North Africa
length, clearly annoyed: ‘We told you not to go alone! There’s nothing great about Morocco! It is a dangerous place! Unlike yourselves we have learnt to walk ( hemos aprendido a andar ) in Morocco since we were kids!’ Questioning Stereotypes Our
Virtuous Racism and the War of the Sexes in Postcolonial France
Twentieth-century France invented for itself an "exception" that successfully preserved the French culture industry. Postcolonial France is experiencing another "French exception" that renders a "virtuous racism" commonplace and legitimates the discrimination that expresses this racism by identifying the undesirable "new French" as scapegoat figures. Four gender-specific stereotypes strengthen the belief that there is a form of sexism exclusive to the segregated neighborhoods of the suburbs that are inhabited primarily by French people of immigrant and colonial descent. Associated with the central figure of the garçon arabe are the beurette, the veiled Muslim French woman, and the secular Muslim. The article argues that the model of abstract, universalist France has become one of a fundamentalist republicanism that plays diverse expressions of otherness and singular identities off of one another in order to preserve a soft regime of oppression.
Stereotypes, a Single-Sex Program, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
Joseph D. Nelson and Sangeeta Subedi
Single-sex schooling for boys of color has become popular throughout the United States. Leaders and educators often consider these environments a school-based intervention to address adverse outcomes associated with Black boys. A contributing factor to these outcomes have been negative stereotypes of Black males related to Black masculinity norms, which developmental psychologists contend boys internalize during childhood. Interviews and observations were conducted over 12 months to describe a single-sex boarding program for first-grade African-American boys, affiliated with a coed independent school. Designed to facilitate boys’ positive identity development, the program’s mission and vision, educational philosophy, and schedule/programming will be primarily described from boys’ perspectives. The goal is to explore the merits of this single-sex intervention to ameliorate how Black male stereotypes and masculinity norms contribute to the school-to-prison pipeline.
Unpacking Gender Images across Angela Merkel’s Four Campaigns for the Chancellorship, 2005–2017
Joyce Marie Mushaben
-blank question: “Are you running as a woman?” Quick-witted Schroeder responded: “Do I have a choice?” 2 Countless cross-national “inventories” confirm that gender stereotypes attributed to male and female candidates during major election campaigns transcend
The Administration of Rape in Twenty-First Century France and England & Wales
Nicole Fayard and Yvette Rocheron
In France and England & Wales rape is now understood as a diverse social phenomenon. It is reported, counted, categorized, and dealt with by the authorities as a serious crime. Yet, despite notable initiatives intended to improve the conviction of alleged perpetrators, major hurdles for alleged victims remain. We show how rape is defined and prosecuted in France and England & Wales, and we use statistical analyzes to understand the scale of the problem, still largely unknown. We also discuss recent controversies (attrition rate;loicadre), exploring a culture of scepticism among police and judiciary that causes complaints to be dropped or downgraded to lesser crimes. Our interview material from France explores two difficulties: When is rape not rape? Did the alleged victim consent to the penetration? Finally we analyze the paradoxical role played by voluntary victim support groups that resist but also collude with a complex regulatory system that fails those who do not speak in legitimate codes.
Olivier Schrauwen’s Arsène Schrauwen beyond Expectations of Autobiography, Colonial History and the Graphic Novel
Benoît Crucifix and Gert Meesters
intentionally expressing racism, Sleen drew nonwhite races very stereotypically. 80 As explained above, Arsène Schrauwen hardly ever shows black people, but Arsène is very uneasy about them. Just like Suske en Wiske, Nero always mixed adventure and humour
the metal stereotype, the exact replica used for printing. Since many stereotypes could be cast from the original plate, numerous presses could churn out identical pages. 4 The use of stereotypes and the development of mechanized steam-driven presses
Among the many new books on comic strips published in the past year one of the most provocative has been Nicolas Rouvière’s Astérix ou la parodie des identités [‘Asterix or the Parody of Identities’].1 Rouvière provides a fascinating analysis of questions of national identity in René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo’s famous series of albums. Grosso modo, he suggests that the strips undermine hard nationalist prejudices, to create universal understanding between peoples. Rouvière contends that the Astérix series encourages the French to question the myths of their own national identity, and satirises their stereotyping of their neighbours (the French image of the British, the Belgians, the Swiss, etc.). He concludes that Astérix runs counter to a world based on the ‘clash of civilisations’ model famously employed by Samuel Huntington.