In this brief research note, the author uses a sociohistoric lens to examine selected films that have employed the cholo, or Chicano gang member, stereotype. He finds that the cholo is a prevalent archetype of Mexican and Mexican American youth. The author argues that the depiction of the cholo as a hypermasculine, abject personage threatening the social order converges with how actual Latino youth are constructed in sociopolitical and media discourses—as both marginalized young men and migrants unworthy of membership in U.S. society.
The Chicano Gang Stereotype in Sociohistoric Context
Der Unterrichtsfilm als neues Lehrmedium im Nationalsozialismus
wiederkehrenden visuellen Stereotype, wie das vorgestellte Motiv der tätigen Hände. Sie sind mit gesellschaftlichen Idealbildern und Erziehungswerten verbunden und zeigen Kontinuitäten zu frühen Denkweisen. Daher können aber müssen diese nicht an sich in
Agency, Representation, and Neoliberal Jewish Girlhood
The focus of the essay is the well known (and worn) stereotype of the Jewish American Princess or JAP. Spoiled, frigid, loud, defiant, the JAP refuses to behave in civilized ways even as she constantly transgresses the boundaries of civilized social spaces. Both an intimate insider, and an eternal outsider, the JAP is a boundary figure whose presence draws and redraws myths of assimilative ideals and citizenship rights in American culture. The complexity of these social relations, their apparent contradictions, and the possibilities they may offer for agency and resistance in both 'real' and fictive contexts are explored through close examinations of four high profile JAPS—Cher Horowitz of the film Clueless, Monica Lewinsky, Jessica Stein of the film Kissing Jessica Stein, and Lizzie Grubman.
The controversies triggered by the Netflix adaptation of Jay Asher’s young adult novel Thirteen Reasons Why (2007) have focused on suicide and downplayed discussions of rape as a central plot device. Making use of stereotypical characters (such as the cheerleader and the jock) and archetypal setting (including the high school), 13 Reasons Why delves into the reassuring world of the suburban town; it deals ambiguously with the entwined notions of gender and power encapsulated in the teenpic genre. A detailed analysis of the series indeed reveals that its causative narrative reinforces the rape myth by putting the blame on girls for events that happen to them. In this article I explore the tensions of a TV series that endorses the rape myth through the entertaining frame of the teenpic.
Local populations in Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia, and to a lesser degree in the Czech Republic, experienced much interaction with Muslims throughout the course of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when the Ottomans, as well as the Crimean Tatars, invaded the Kingdom of Hungary and waged wars against the Polish-Lithuanian state and the Habsburg Hereditary Lands. The Ottoman era has usually been reflected in the history textbooks of these four countries under the headings "Turkish Wars" or "Ottoman Expansion." Since the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989, all four ex-communist states have been involved in rewriting textbooks, although the perception of the Ottomans and Muslims has not changed in all cases. Without claiming to map the entire historical presentation of the Ottomans, this article demonstrates the polyphony found in the textbooks of this region. By analyzing secondary school educational materials in all four languages, it is possible to identify stereotypes, prejudices, and distortions within the perception of the Ottoman Turks.
Stereotypes, a Single-Sex Program, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
Joseph D. Nelson and Sangeeta Subedi
Single-sex schooling for boys of color has become popular throughout the United States. Leaders and educators often consider these environments a school-based intervention to address adverse outcomes associated with Black boys. A contributing factor to these outcomes have been negative stereotypes of Black males related to Black masculinity norms, which developmental psychologists contend boys internalize during childhood. Interviews and observations were conducted over 12 months to describe a single-sex boarding program for first-grade African-American boys, affiliated with a coed independent school. Designed to facilitate boys’ positive identity development, the program’s mission and vision, educational philosophy, and schedule/programming will be primarily described from boys’ perspectives. The goal is to explore the merits of this single-sex intervention to ameliorate how Black male stereotypes and masculinity norms contribute to the school-to-prison pipeline.
Nineteenth Century American Primary School Geography Textbooks
introduced a series of racial, cultural, political, social, and religious stereotypes that elevated Western civilization (and hence, the American nation) to the highest degree of exceptionalism while depicting other nations and countries as “different” and
Girls of Color Discuss Race, Body Image, and Sexualization
Sharon Lamb and Aleksandra Plocha
Building on research about sexualization in media, body image, and its impact on the development of girls of color, we present a discourse analysis of what the members of three focus groups of teen girls of color, primarily daughters of immigrants, said when asked to talk about what it means to them to be sexy, and about their perceptions of media influence. We focus on interpretive repertoires, contradictions, and discursive strategies regarding race, body image, and perceptions about sexiness.
Negotiating between Stereotypical Femininity and Self-expression in Patriarchal Japan
In this article, I focus on the childhood and adolescent life experiences of dansō (female-to-male crossdressers) who work as escorts in contemporary Japan, and on the process that led to their presentation of self as gendered masculine in their private and working lives. During their childhood and adolescence, dansō have to negotiate their identity and self-presentation to adhere to the gendered pressures of Japanese society. Through an analysis of interviews undertaken with 14 dansō informants, I explore dansō’s construction of a male identity before adulthood, highlighting the societal impositions they experienced and the coping strategies to which they resorted in order to create and maintain a space in which to express their queer selves.
Films for young audiences today, particularly those deemed multicultural such as Whale Rider or Up, combine two journeys or quests, those of an elderly person and those of a young child. These films and others, such as The Secret of Roan Inish, represent a new genre called Kid Quests. This article examines the history, defining features, and cultural worth of kid quests and discusses their value and relevance to topics current in diversity studies such as age.