not attempting to reconstruct the real life of Byzantine women, but focus instead on the representations and stereotypes found in these histories when they refer to women. Like other traditional societies, in Byzantium men established women
Between Stereotype and Reality
Cet article se concentre sur le rÔle de la spatialité dans le monde des Juifs de Méditerranée orientale, qui est configuré comme un espace en réseaux. À travers le dissensusdes réceptions d’un ouvrage paru en 1925 (Joseph Pérez d’A. Navon) est mis en avant le fait que la spatialité doive être étudiée conjointement et comparativement tant du point de vue de l’observateur, que de l’observé, de façon à se départir de stéréotypes préconstruits relevantde l’opposition Orient/Occident. La parution de Joseph Pérez fut concomitante d’unegrande vogue littéraire exotique et orientaliste. Elle construisit l’image d’un juif “oriental,” qui se présente donc comme le refl et de cette opposition. L’étude du positionnement depersonnages tant chez A. Navon que dans la grande oeuvre d’Albert Cohen révèle la strate sous-jacente d’un espace articulé diffèremment tant au plan des représentations que del’espace effectif de circulation transterritoriale des acteurs sépharades.
Anger in Popular Hindi Cinema
The article advocates the importance of studying conceptual meaning and change in modern mass media and highlights the significance of conceptual intermediality. The article first analyzes anger in Hindi cinema as an audiovisual key concept within the framework of an Indian national ideology. It explores how anger and the Indian angry young man became popularized, politicized, and stereotyped by popular films and print media in India in the 1970s and 1980s. The article goes on to advocate for extending conceptual history beyond language on theoretical grounds and identifies two major obstacles in political iconography: the methodological subordination of visuals to language in the negotiation of meaning, and the distinction of emotion and reason by assigning them functionally to different sign systems.
The Illusion of Progress in Popular Film
Vicki L. Eaklor
The film The Kids Are All Right, centered on a lesbian couple and their two teenage children, was released in 2010 following a media blitz selling it as a groundbreaking film. Many queer viewers (like this author) eagerly awaited this supposed step forward in lesbian representation, only to be disappointed once again by mainstream stereotypes and tropes. This article takes a close look at the film against the backdrop of lesbian images and themes in “Hollywood“ films, particularly in the last twenty years, and argues that continuities, while sometimes more subtle, override the illusion of progress in portraying lesbians. Finally, there is speculation about why genuine change in mainstream film may be impossible under current societal and economic systems.
Watching Politics of Race at the Ballpark
Thomas D. Bunting
Drawing on recent literature on political spectatorship, I show how sport, and baseball in particular, can both illuminate and shape American politics. Following the history of racial segregation and immigrant assimilation in baseball, one sees that it mirrors American race politics on the whole. I argue that Jackie Robinson and the desegregation of baseball changed both American politics and the horizons within which citizens think. Although it is tempting to focus on this positive and emergent moment, I argue that for the most part, looking at the history of race in baseball shows instead coded language that reinforces racial stereotypes. This example of baseball and race shows how powerful spectatorship can be in the democratic world. Spectatorship need not be passive but can be an important sphere of activity in democratic life.
Female Political Leaders in France and Norway
Anne Krogstad and Aagoth Storvik
This article explores images of high-level female politicians in France and Norway from 1980 to 2010, examining the ways in which they present themselves to the media and their subsequent reception by journalists. Women in French politics experience difficulties living up to a masculine heroic leadership ideal historically marked by drama, conquest, and seductiveness. In contrast, Norwegian female politicians have challenged the traditional leadership ethos of conspicuous modesty and low-key presentation. We argue that images of French and Norwegian politicians in the media are not only national constructions; they are also gendered. Seven images of women in politics are discussed: (1) men in skirts and ladies of stone, (2) seductresses, (3) different types of mothers, (4) heroines of the past, (5) women in red, (6) glamorous women, and (7) women using ironic femininity. The last three images-color, glamour, and irony-are identified as new strategies female politicians use to accentuate their positions of power with signs of female sensuality. It is thus possible for female politicians to show signs of feminine sensuality and still avoid negative gender stereotyping.
Textbooks during French Colonization and the Modern Literature of Global Tourism
to reconstruct these other discourses, such as reported speech, quotations, borrowings, or at times polyphony. Stereotypes built into a discourse play a significant role. The scope of stereotypes has, over many years, been widely studied: a number of
Translator : Matthew Roy
examples turned out to be very instructive. Indeed, the exemplification of the defined lemmas following the same model may at first appear redundant, but in fact provided many stereotypical images of foreign peoples. Indeed, the nouns chosen to
The Differential Impacts of the Global Pandemic
Kim Rubenstein, Trish Bergin, and Pia Rowe
leadership but, rather, it reflects a style of leadership different from the stereotypical male model. As Kristine Ziwica (2020) argues: “it's not that women are necessarily ‘better’ than men … It's that we have a real problem with stereotypically ‘male
Amanda H. Littauer
say, ‘I don't have to teach her anything. She's teaching it all to me.’” 29 Angelica's account reveals the multiple possibilities for age-differentiated relationships, whose internal dynamics were often more subtle or complex than the stereotypes