Drawing on recent literature on political spectatorship, I show how sport, and baseball in particular, can both illuminate and shape American politics. Following the history of racial segregation and immigrant assimilation in baseball, one sees that it mirrors American race politics on the whole. I argue that Jackie Robinson and the desegregation of baseball changed both American politics and the horizons within which citizens think. Although it is tempting to focus on this positive and emergent moment, I argue that for the most part, looking at the history of race in baseball shows instead coded language that reinforces racial stereotypes. This example of baseball and race shows how powerful spectatorship can be in the democratic world. Spectatorship need not be passive but can be an important sphere of activity in democratic life.
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leadership but, rather, it reflects a style of leadership different from the stereotypical male model. As Kristine Ziwica (2020) argues: “it's not that women are necessarily ‘better’ than men … It's that we have a real problem with stereotypically ‘male
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cultural perceptions and emotional responses. She also notes that the same joke may carry different meanings for members of different groups. Given the prevalence of stereotypes, jokes that a dominant group finds amusing often not only offend subordinate