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Kenneth Margerison

The French monarchy's determination to suspend the trading rights of the Compagnie des Indes in 1769 stimulated a lively public debate over the establishment of commercial liberty in the Indies trade. Since mid-century, Vincent de Gournay and his disciples had advocated increased liberty in French commerce, and the Compagnie des Indes' privileged trading monopoly offered a tempting target for these reformers. Working on behalf of the ministry, the abbé Morellet undertook the task of convincing public opinion of the benefits that liberty of commerce in the Indies trade would bring to France. However, the company's principal banker Jacques Necker and physiocrat Pierre-Samuel Dupont raised serious doubts concerning both the feasibility and the value of such reform. These critiques challenged any expectation that commercial liberty would increase French strength in the Indies trade or contest British political hegemony in India after the Seven Years' War.

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Mirrors for Margraves

Peter Damian’s Models for Male and Female Rulers

Alison Creber

gendered “male” in connection with her authority over others. Damian addressed his letter to “Duke Adelaide” 71 and praised her for being a woman in whom “virile strength reigns in a feminine breast.” 72 Yet for Damian, this gender continuum went only one

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Leif Lewin

intention. A related problem concerns the possibility of abuse. If intensity is accorded special weight, it will be tempting to exaggerate the strength of one’s preferences. After all, even if I do not care very much about the matter at stake, it is better

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Jeffrey D. Hilmer and Max Halupka

. Despite its conceptual strengths and original empirical insights, Participation in Europe has a difficulty in constructing a cohesive narrative to frame its snapshot-like approach. Though the concept of youth participation does serve as a central theme

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China’s New Silk Road

Autocracy Promotion in the New Asian Order?

Octavia Bryant and Mark Chou

systems and development paths of their own choice,” leading to an “objective and rational perception of other countries’ growing strength, policies and visions.” In other words, while all countries should participate in regional affairs, no country should

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Mark S. Micale

the decline. These are historically significant developments indeed. In fact, my sense is that Pinker actually underestimates how great a transformation in sensibility is represented by the growing strength of animal-human bonds and the enrichment of

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Pueri Sunt Pueri

Machismo, Chivalry, and the Aggressive Pastimes of the Medieval Male Youth

Sean McGlynn

themselves into gangs of Henricians or Ricardians: “The lads of the city of London, often gathering in thousands and choosing kings among themselves, made war upon each other, and fought to their utmost strength; whereby many died stricken with blows, or

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Political Regeneration

José Bonifácio and Temporal Experiences in the Luso-American World in the Early Nineteenth Century

Maria Elisa Noronha De Sá and Marcelo Gantus Jasmin

the post of cabinet minister. At this time, Bonifácio began to organize what he called a “center for strength and unity” throughout the country. Upon the break with Portugal he became involved, not just with dealing with the problems of governance, but

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The Modernity of Political Representation

Its Innovative Thrust and Transnational Semantic Transfers during the Sattelzeit (Eighteenth to Nineteenth Centuries)

Samuel Hayat and José María Rosales

constructivism alike. Its assumed ahistorical character may have been a strength as a legitimizing principle; it is now a serious flaw that weakens democratic rule itself. Accordingly, the purpose of this special section is to document with the help of two case

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Roberto Farneti

stark realities which have to be mediated in some way.” The question we should ask, then, is whether the description of a state of affairs like ethnic fragmentation is per se a clue to the condition and strength of democracy. The continuum between a