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David Bordwell

Understanding how spectators interact with films requires some theory of filmic representation. This article reviews three such theories. The first, a communication model, assumes that an artwork constitutes or contains a message passed from a sender to a receiver. The second, a signification model, assumes that the film operates within a system of codes and that the perceiver applies codes to signs in the text in order to arrive at meanings. This conception of film as signification may be found in both classic structuralist and post-structuralist accounts. The third, an empirical-experiential model, assumes that an artwork is designed to create an experience for the spectator. This article argues that the cognitive approach to film studies is founded on the third model of representation. The article also traces the strengths and limits of cognitive film theory and its theory of representation.

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Karen Pearlman

“Should You Rewrite in the Editing Room?” video, Sven Pape (2016b) is exercising his judgment about the structure and rhythm of a scene. We see him, bottom right, thinking through the material’s intentions, strengths, and limitations before rewriting by

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James E. Cutting

: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann . Wundt , Wilhelm . 1910 . Grundzüge der physiologischen psychologie . 6th ed. Leipzig : Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann . Yerkes , Robert , and John D. Dodson , J. 1908 . “ The Relation of Strength of

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Laura T. Di Summa-Knoop

and now” but that may not be appropriate or plausible in the future. What appears as an obstacle to naturalist analysis is instead a strength for criticism, for criticism does benefit from a history of interpretations, from their mutability, and from

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Patrick Keating

this response, I offer some critical queries regarding Berliner's chapters on narration and style. While admiring the book's considerable strengths, I suggest two alternative ways of thinking about the aesthetic value of unity, disunity, clarity, and

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Brenda Austin-Smith, Matthew Cipa, and Temenuga Trifonova

their strengths and weaknesses. The most rewarding aspect of this discussion occurs in its final moments (98–101), where Slugan returns to some of the concerns he developed in the preceding chapter, where he considers the place of indexicality in André

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Andreas Baranowski and Heiko Hecht

( Konkle and Oliva 2011 ). This also extends to social situations and character traits; for instance, low camera angles produce images of strength and high camera angle images of weakness ( Baranowski and Hecht 2017a ; Sevenants and d’Ydewalle 2006 ). With

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Philip Cowan

] 1997: 1–2)—I believe this is the fundamental strength of Wyler’s work, and what makes him a great director. The process that the actors and director go through, in terms of interpreting a script, would involve understanding and developing the

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Designing a New Method of Studying Feature-Length Films

An Empirical Study and its Critical Analysis

Jose Cañas-Bajo, Teresa Cañas-Bajo, Eleni Berki, Juri-Petri Valtanen, and Pertti Saariluoma

said data with meaning ( Creswell and Clark 2017 ; Creswell et al. 2003 ). Our objective was to draw on the strengths of each data source (triangulation, complementarity, and diversity) and to try to reduce some of the limitations (validity and

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Christopher Blake Evernden, Cynthia A. Freeland, Thomas Schatz, and Frank P. Tomasulo

conception of horror as a “dark stage,” one that has a special appeal to women because it challenges gender expectations and norms (4). A great strength of the book is Schubart's embrace of “anecdotal evidence” in her analysis. This gives the text an