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Kenneth Margerison

The French monarchy's determination to suspend the trading rights of the Compagnie des Indes in 1769 stimulated a lively public debate over the establishment of commercial liberty in the Indies trade. Since mid-century, Vincent de Gournay and his disciples had advocated increased liberty in French commerce, and the Compagnie des Indes' privileged trading monopoly offered a tempting target for these reformers. Working on behalf of the ministry, the abbé Morellet undertook the task of convincing public opinion of the benefits that liberty of commerce in the Indies trade would bring to France. However, the company's principal banker Jacques Necker and physiocrat Pierre-Samuel Dupont raised serious doubts concerning both the feasibility and the value of such reform. These critiques challenged any expectation that commercial liberty would increase French strength in the Indies trade or contest British political hegemony in India after the Seven Years' War.

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Mirrors for Margraves

Peter Damian’s Models for Male and Female Rulers

Alison Creber

gendered “male” in connection with her authority over others. Damian addressed his letter to “Duke Adelaide” 71 and praised her for being a woman in whom “virile strength reigns in a feminine breast.” 72 Yet for Damian, this gender continuum went only one

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Mark S. Micale

the decline. These are historically significant developments indeed. In fact, my sense is that Pinker actually underestimates how great a transformation in sensibility is represented by the growing strength of animal-human bonds and the enrichment of

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Political Regeneration

José Bonifácio and Temporal Experiences in the Luso-American World in the Early Nineteenth Century

Maria Elisa Noronha De Sá and Marcelo Gantus Jasmin

the post of cabinet minister. At this time, Bonifácio began to organize what he called a “center for strength and unity” throughout the country. Upon the break with Portugal he became involved, not just with dealing with the problems of governance, but

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Pueri Sunt Pueri

Machismo, Chivalry, and the Aggressive Pastimes of the Medieval Male Youth

Sean McGlynn

themselves into gangs of Henricians or Ricardians: “The lads of the city of London, often gathering in thousands and choosing kings among themselves, made war upon each other, and fought to their utmost strength; whereby many died stricken with blows, or

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Hugo Bonin and Aleksandra Konarzewska

's suffrage—in order to avoid repetition of previous research, by his own admission (42)—the transnational nature of the feminist movement would probably add strength to his argument. In the spring of 1917, as the sacrifices of millions of men and women went

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The Modernity of Political Representation

Its Innovative Thrust and Transnational Semantic Transfers during the Sattelzeit (Eighteenth to Nineteenth Centuries)

Samuel Hayat and José María Rosales

constructivism alike. Its assumed ahistorical character may have been a strength as a legitimizing principle; it is now a serious flaw that weakens democratic rule itself. Accordingly, the purpose of this special section is to document with the help of two case

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Sandbags, Strikes, and Scandals

Public Disorder and Problematic Policing in Occupied Roubaix during World War I

James E. Connolly

strength of rumor and public perception during the occupation is again evident. However, Lernoux concluded: “Following the demonstration of rue Voltaire, I understood that M. le Commissaire no longer had the necessary authority.” 80 Investigating policeman

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Distributional Concept Analysis

A Computational Model for History of Concepts

Peter De Bolla, Ewan Jones, Paul Nulty, Gabriel Recchia, and John Regan

and their specific DPF values as “strength of binding.” Table 1 presents an example of the data our method produces, here truncated at twelve co-associations, to give a sense of how we can begin to construct profiles of words and their bound lexis

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Carl Strikwerda

military strength did not define economic power. They persuaded themselves that globalization required an offensive strategy, in part because rapid economic change appeared to undermine their traditional supporters—Prussian landowners, artisans, and the