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Kenneth Margerison

The French monarchy's determination to suspend the trading rights of the Compagnie des Indes in 1769 stimulated a lively public debate over the establishment of commercial liberty in the Indies trade. Since mid-century, Vincent de Gournay and his disciples had advocated increased liberty in French commerce, and the Compagnie des Indes' privileged trading monopoly offered a tempting target for these reformers. Working on behalf of the ministry, the abbé Morellet undertook the task of convincing public opinion of the benefits that liberty of commerce in the Indies trade would bring to France. However, the company's principal banker Jacques Necker and physiocrat Pierre-Samuel Dupont raised serious doubts concerning both the feasibility and the value of such reform. These critiques challenged any expectation that commercial liberty would increase French strength in the Indies trade or contest British political hegemony in India after the Seven Years' War.

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Mirrors for Margraves

Peter Damian’s Models for Male and Female Rulers

Alison Creber

gendered “male” in connection with her authority over others. Damian addressed his letter to “Duke Adelaide” 71 and praised her for being a woman in whom “virile strength reigns in a feminine breast.” 72 Yet for Damian, this gender continuum went only one

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Pueri Sunt Pueri

Machismo, Chivalry, and the Aggressive Pastimes of the Medieval Male Youth

Sean McGlynn

themselves into gangs of Henricians or Ricardians: “The lads of the city of London, often gathering in thousands and choosing kings among themselves, made war upon each other, and fought to their utmost strength; whereby many died stricken with blows, or

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Mark S. Micale

the decline. These are historically significant developments indeed. In fact, my sense is that Pinker actually underestimates how great a transformation in sensibility is represented by the growing strength of animal-human bonds and the enrichment of

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Sandbags, Strikes, and Scandals

Public Disorder and Problematic Policing in Occupied Roubaix during World War I

James E. Connolly

strength of rumor and public perception during the occupation is again evident. However, Lernoux concluded: “Following the demonstration of rue Voltaire, I understood that M. le Commissaire no longer had the necessary authority.” 80 Investigating policeman

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Carl Strikwerda

military strength did not define economic power. They persuaded themselves that globalization required an offensive strategy, in part because rapid economic change appeared to undermine their traditional supporters—Prussian landowners, artisans, and the

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Randolph Roth

contest to be won.” These forces have gained strength globally, according to Pinker, since the rise of the first great agrarian states in ancient times. Their progress has been slow and uneven, but nonetheless remarkable, and more rapid since the

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“And much more I am soryat for my good knyghts”

Fainting, Homosociality, and Elite Male Culture in Middle English Romance

Rachel E. Moss

and to promote homosocial bonding. Mador does not faint in spite of his knightly qualities of hardiness, strength, and prowess: he faints because of them, and his swooning is literary shorthand for the nobility this fast-paced poem does not have the

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A Fiction of the French Nation

The Émigré Novel, Nostalgia, and National Identity, 1797–1815

Mary Ashburn Miller

Indes , “at a distance from home, men are no longer restrained by the fear of being ashamed to see their countrymen. In a warm climate where the body loses its vigour, the mind must lose some of its strength. In a country where nature and custom lead to

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Michael McGuire

reports and committee meetings. Some inhabitants apparently collaborated with Germans. Some apparently were disinterested in laboring. And many, due to age and strength, could not restore what Alberich had ruined. Picardy’s rehabilitation required the