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Kenneth Margerison

The French monarchy's determination to suspend the trading rights of the Compagnie des Indes in 1769 stimulated a lively public debate over the establishment of commercial liberty in the Indies trade. Since mid-century, Vincent de Gournay and his disciples had advocated increased liberty in French commerce, and the Compagnie des Indes' privileged trading monopoly offered a tempting target for these reformers. Working on behalf of the ministry, the abbé Morellet undertook the task of convincing public opinion of the benefits that liberty of commerce in the Indies trade would bring to France. However, the company's principal banker Jacques Necker and physiocrat Pierre-Samuel Dupont raised serious doubts concerning both the feasibility and the value of such reform. These critiques challenged any expectation that commercial liberty would increase French strength in the Indies trade or contest British political hegemony in India after the Seven Years' War.

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Paul Jankowski, Clifford Rosenberg, and Rebecca Pulju

Rhineland crisis in 1936, the country’s leaders felt more than ever that they could not act without Britain. That had already become clear fourteen years earlier, when they occupied the Ruhr and when their strength relative to Germany’s was infinitely

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Mirrors for Margraves

Peter Damian’s Models for Male and Female Rulers

Alison Creber

gendered “male” in connection with her authority over others. Damian addressed his letter to “Duke Adelaide” 71 and praised her for being a woman in whom “virile strength reigns in a feminine breast.” 72 Yet for Damian, this gender continuum went only one

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Hannah Callaway, Alec G. Hargreaves, and John P. Murphy

understandable if Kleppinger stops short of fully answering them. But she is firmly of the view that socio-political readings of her corpus “do not always do justice to the full artistic strengths of the novels” (4), and she offers at least three different types

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Christopher E. Forth

, as an object of unrequited erotic attention by the same women. In Britain, Charles Gordon would offer a similar combination of “feminine” gentleness and humility with the strength and force that would still qualify him as a “masculine” hero (87). The

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Aro Velmet and Rachel Kantrowitz

the French empire through schooling. The strength of Gamble’s monograph lies in both its chronological reach and its focus on elite African voices, mostly Senegalese. Gamble positions his work as one that “deliberately tacks back and forth between

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Edward Berenson, Elinor Accampo, Joseph Bohling, and Michael Seidman

second, a former soldier who ascended quickly to the Sûreté’s upper ranks on the strength of his brash personality. Taylor, in particular, didn’t inspire much confidence in his contemporaries, and his most persistent critic seems to be Georges Grison, the

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Mark S. Micale

the decline. These are historically significant developments indeed. In fact, my sense is that Pinker actually underestimates how great a transformation in sensibility is represented by the growing strength of animal-human bonds and the enrichment of

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Pueri Sunt Pueri

Machismo, Chivalry, and the Aggressive Pastimes of the Medieval Male Youth

Sean McGlynn

themselves into gangs of Henricians or Ricardians: “The lads of the city of London, often gathering in thousands and choosing kings among themselves, made war upon each other, and fought to their utmost strength; whereby many died stricken with blows, or

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Sandbags, Strikes, and Scandals

Public Disorder and Problematic Policing in Occupied Roubaix during World War I

James E. Connolly

strength of rumor and public perception during the occupation is again evident. However, Lernoux concluded: “Following the demonstration of rue Voltaire, I understood that M. le Commissaire no longer had the necessary authority.” 80 Investigating policeman