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Narratives of Ambivalence

The Ethics of Vulnerability and Agency in Research with Girls in the Sex Trade

Alexandra Ricard-Guay and Myriam Denov

. While it is important to acknowledge the abuses committed against minors in the sex trade, this one-dimensional narrative may come into opposition with how the girls themselves perceive their experiences, and may actually hinder an understanding of the

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Overlapping Time and Place

Early Modern England’s Girlhood Discourse and Indigenous Girlhood in the Dominion of Canada (1684-1860)

Haidee Smith Lefebvre

hereditary Mohawk chief and an upper class Englishwoman. Tekahionwake witnessed settlers displacing fur trade society and transforming Indigenous society in part by subjugating Indigenous women. Her essay provides a detailed account of the fictional Indian

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Don’t know much about NAFTA

The continued importance of a global issues general education course

Carol D. Miller

At the beginning of the semester, 42.6 per cent of undergraduates enrolled in a lower division, general education global studies course at a comprehensive state university in the Midwestern United States reported that they ‘didn’t know’ what the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was, and 85 per cent believed that, in general, trade with other countries created jobs. Analyses of data show that those who did not rely on TV or radio for their news sources were less likely to know what NAFTA was, but their knowledge transformed by the end of the semester. Results demonstrated the necessity for general education courses focused on global issues in an era when students do not rely on traditional sources for news information.

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Learning to Remember Slavery

School Field Trips and the Representation of Difficult Histories in English Museums

Nikki Spalding

Drawing on the fields of education, memory, and cultural studies, this article argues that as important cultural memory products, government-sponsored museum education initiatives require the same attention that history textbooks receive. It investigates the performance of recent shifts in historical consciousness in the context of museum field trip sessions developed in England in tandem with the 2007 bicentenary of the abolition of the slave trade. Analysis of fieldwork data is presented in order to illustrate some of the complexities inherent in the way difficult histories are represented and taught to young people in the twenty-first century, particularly in relation to citizenship education.

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Chinichi Arai

Despite modernization of the Japanese school system after 1872, this period was marked by the war in East Asia and nationalism focusing on the emperor, whereby the imperial rescript of 1890 defined the core of national education. Following defeat in the Second World War, Japan reformed its education system in accordance with a policy geared towards peace and democracy in line with the United Nations. However, following the peace treaty of 1951 and renewed economic development during the Cold War, the conservative power bloc revised history textbooks in accordance with nationalist ideology. Many teachers, historians and trade unions resisted this tendency, and in 1982 neighboring countries in East Asia protested against the Japanese government for justifying past aggression in history textbooks. As a result, descriptions of wartime misdeeds committed by the Japanese army found their way into textbooks after 1997. Although the ethnocentric history textbook for Japanese secondary schools was published and passed government screening in 2001, there is now a trend towards bilateral or multilateral teaching materials between Japan, South Korea, and China. Two bilateral and one multilateral work have been published so far, which constitute the basis for future trials toward publishing a common textbook.

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Autonomy and control

Danish university reform in the context of modern governance

Susan Wright and Jakob Williams Ørberg

In 2003 the Danish government reformed universities to 'set them free' from the state. Yet ministers are actively trying to shape universities and even set research agendas. How does the government's notion of 'freedom' reconcile independence with control? We identify three discourses of freedom: freedom to use academic judgement over what to research, teach, publish and say publicly; a free trade discourse where universities are free to pursue profit; and a modernising state discourse where government steers universities to contribute to the knowledge economy. Danish universities were reformed as part of the modernisation of the welfare state. We explore the assemblage of administrative and funding mechanisms through which the government now steers independent organisations: a chain of contracts for outsourced services, newly appointed managers, output payments and accrual accounting. While responsibility for achieving government policy is passed downwards through the independent organisation, formal lines of accountability run back up to the government. University leaders and academics are set free to manoeuvre within the system, but their economic survival is firmly dependent on responsiveness to centralised steering mechanisms

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Dustin William Louie

preying on underage girls. Indigenous women and girls are significantly overrepresented in the Western Canadian sex trade; they are estimated to make up 50 to 90 percent of the trade in major cities of this region ( NWAC 2014 ; Sethi 2007 ; Totten 2009

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Claudia Mitchell

same easy-to-access populations over and over again because of the difficulty of reaching girls who are out of school or who are employed as domestic workers or who are involved in the sex trade? How far are we willing to go, as researchers, to adjust

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The German Colonies in Die Weltgeschichte als Kolonialgeschichte

The Use of Filmic Techniques in Colonial Revisionism in the 1920s

Michael Annegarn-Gläß

Translator : Katherine Ebisch-Burton

reports that at the time of the Roman Empire, these colonies, whose principal function was as trading posts, enabled trade as far afield as India. When, as Cürlis’s film suggests, these trading links were cut off in consequence of the emergence of Islamic

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Smart Girl Identity

Possibilities and Implications

Bernice Loh

parental support in their academic endeav ours were less likely to make such trade-offs because “parental commitment helped them negotiate the pulls of peer culture” (77), thus reemphasizing the importance of social class and structural supports in the