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The Making of a Fundamental Value

A History of the Concept of Separation of Church and State in the Netherlands

Mart Rutjes

by national developments. The late nineteenth century witnessed an organizational boom of religious groups—Opzoomer had mentioned that it had become impossible to speak of one church in the state, and that there were many religions that the state

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Pasi Ihalainen

This paper suggests that the study of the modernisation of European political cultures in the eighteenth century would greatly benefit from a comparative conceptual historical approach. is approach would effect the reconstruction of a variety of meanings attached to chosen political concepts in different national contexts through the side-by-side analysis of primary sources originating from each case according to the methodology of both historical semantics and pragmatics. A promising research topic is the continuity and change in the conceptualisation of national community, national identity, popular sovereignty and democracy in various European political cultures. e conceptual analyses of late eighteenth-century political sermons from five northwestern European countries, conducted by the author, for example, reveal that conceptual changes related to the rise of nationalism took place even within public religion, allowing it to adapt itself to the age of nationalism. Further analysis of the secular debates taking place in representative bodies and public discourse in late eighteenth-century Britain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden elucidates the gradual development of the notion that all political power is ultimately derived from the people and that such a system constituted a "democracy" in a positive sense within different parliamentary traditions and perhaps even before the French Revolution.

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Tuuli Lähdesmäki, Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus, and Katja Mäkinen

how they build their identities. These transformations have also shaken the foundations of the European Union and heightened criticism of its legitimacy and integration politics. The EU's attempts to enhance unity in Europe have commonly strengthened

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Sovereignty versus Influence

European Unity and the Conceptualization of Sovereignty in British Parliamentary Debates, 1945–2016

Teemu Häkkinen and Miina Kaarkoski

Ever since the fourteenth century, the concept of sovereignty (in the sense of supreme authority) has been an essential element in state formation and national identity in Britain, and different views about the identity of Britain have influenced

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Scandinavianism

Mapping the Rise of a New Concept

Ruth Hemstad

Prussia and Russia, the pan-Scandinavian movement focused on a common Scandinavian identity and nationality. As in other (pan-)national movements, the same historical traditions and common, or at least kindred, languages together with cultural similarities

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Populism

The Timeline of a Concept

Juan Francisco Fuentes

: inward, it implies a reinforcement of identity policies so as to exclude “others”—usually immigrants—from the national community; and outward, it involves a reactive, highly emotional, mobilization against a powerful external agent, for instance, the

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Pablo Facundo Escalante

“Our discipline works under a tacit presupposition of teleology .” —Reinhart Koselleck At the end of the nineteenth century, republicanism became the mythomoteur on which France’s identity was shaped throughout the following century. Back then, the

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Hugo Bonin and Aleksandra Konarzewska

One Swallow Does Not a Spring Make Pasi Ihalainen, The Springs of Democracy: National and Transnational Debates on Constitutional Reform in the British, German, Swedish and Finnish Parliaments, 1917–1919 (Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society

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Heritage (Erfgoed) in the Dutch Press

A History of Changing Meanings in an International Context

Hanneke Ronnes and Tamara Van Kessel

, only in the last decades of the nineteenth century did erfgoed become fully imbued with what are since then the key elements of heritage , namely, that it is a national or local identity marker—historical, beautiful, unique—in need of preservation

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Annabel Brett, Fabian Steininger, Tobias Adler-Bartels, Juan Pablo Scarfi, and Jan Surman

sides of the Alps developed a “monarchic ideology of integration” (148) based on traditional values and ideas of order as well as religious-theological justifications. Positively connoted national, regional, and local identities were developed against