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“We Are a Traveling People”

Tourism, Travel Journalism, and the Construction of a Modern National Identity in Sweden

Emilia Ljungberg

implicitly discusses a national identity. In this article I analyze how a Swedish national identity was constructed in travel journalism and discussions about travel and tourism published in the newspaper Dagens Nyheter in the 1930s. In her article about

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A Fiction of the French Nation

The Émigré Novel, Nostalgia, and National Identity, 1797–1815

Mary Ashburn Miller

demonstrate the émigrés’ suitability for return and to alleviate anxieties about their reentry. Using these novels to understand how émigrés sought to win the trust of a nation that labeled them as traitors elucidates notions of identity and national belonging

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'Kilts Versus Breeches'

The Royal Visit, Tourism and Scottish National Memory

Eric G.E. Zuelow

George IV’s visit to Scotland in 1822 not only involved the royal entourage but also attracted thousands of ordinary people to Edinburgh. These early tourists encountered a largely invented spectacle of Scottish history and traditions that was designed to create a unified memory of the national past, despite the reality of a sharp division between Highlands and Lowlands. This article examines how the tourist gaze helped shape a new Scottish national memory and identity.

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“Flattering the Little Sleeping Rooster”

The French Left, de Gaulle, and the Vietnam War in 1965

Bethany S. Keenan

This article examines conflicts concerning French policy on the American phase of the Vietnam War between the French Left and Charles de Gaulle during the 1965 elections. The Left faced a dilemma on a matter of central foreign policy as it found it difficult to differentiate its position on the war from de Gaulle's public statements on it. Through an evaluation of press commentary, I demonstrate that in its attempt to set itself apart from de Gaulle, the French Left challenged not only his interpretation of the war in Vietnam but also his understanding of France and its role in the world, proffering a softer, cooperative conception in opposition to de Gaulle's push for a militant leadership status for France in the international community. The study shows the limits political parties face as part of protest movements, while also situating French debate over the Vietnam War squarely within the ongoing dialogue over French national identity.

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Not an Immigrant Country?

Non-Western Racism and the Duties of Global Citizenship

Adam K. Webb

The rise of non-Western societies, especially in Asia, to greater global influence demands greater scrutiny of how they engage the rest of the world. To date, every society with high levels of immigration is in Europe or a product of the European empires. The erosion of ethnically and racially inflected understandings of citizenship has also gone much further in the modern West than in East Asia or the Gulf States. Notably, however, liberal political theorists who make the case for a cosmopolitan opening of borders remain silent on such non-Western patterns of racial exclusion. Non-Western societies often claim that, because they are 'not an immigrant country', they should not be held to the same standards of openness and non-discrimination. International law, a product of the postcolonial moment, also has a blind spot on these issues. This article challenges such double standards. It suggests that the implicit normative argument for greater Western openness – collective guilt over the colonial experience and resulting racial stratification – leads in unexpected directions, implicating Asian societies in ways that they do not yet recognise.

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Thea Pitman

The above epigraph, written in 1882 by the Mexican Liberal statesman, pedagogue and novelist Ignacio Manuel Altamirano as an introduction to the Mexican writer Luis Malanco’s Viaje a Oriente (Altamirano 1988: 215, 229–30), displays the widely-held opinion that Mexicans do not produce travel writing of their own. Altamirano’s comments on the lack of Mexican travel literature have since been quoted and annotated on a number of occasions: by Felipe Teixidor in 1939 in the prologue to the first edition of his anthology of Mexican travel writing at home and abroad, Viajeros mexicanos: siglos XIX y XX (1982: 3–4); by Francisco López Cámara in his book Los viajes de Guillermo Prieto: estudio introductorio (1994: 13–14); and again by Emmanuel Carballo in the introduction to his anthology of Mexican travel writing concerning travel in the United States, ¿Qué país es éste?: los Estados Unidos y los gringos vistos por escritores mexicanos de los siglos XIX y XX (1996: 11–12). Ironically, all three critics uphold (with nuances) Altamirano’s declarations on the lack of Mexican travel writing.

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Touring the Regions

(Dis) Uniting the Kingdom on Holiday

Hazel Andrews

cultural capital consumed for the purpose of “articulating about identity and life-style” ( Desforges 2000: 942 ), to the ways in which touristic practices express ideas around sexuality and gender ( Thurnell-Read and Casey 2014 ). In terms of national

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Humanitarian Ideals between the Wars

(Re)Constructing Switzerland through Travel Writing

Sara Steinert Borella

Swiss authors and travelers Ella Maillart and Annemarie Schwarzenbach set off to drive from Switzerland to Afghanistan in a Ford roadster in late 1939, shortly before the outbreak of World War II. Their subsequent texts reveal as much about cultural norms prevalent in Switzerland in the late 1930s as they do about the actual journey to Afghanistan. This article explores Ella Maillart's The Cruel Way (1947) and Annemarie Schwarzenbach's All the Roads Are Open (2011) as constructions of the humanitarian principles that the Swiss have come to call their own. Both travel narratives call into question the national value of neutrality while echoing the language of emerging political and legal human rights discourses. The travel narratives of Maillart and Schwarzenbach thus contribute to the development of a literary discourse of human rights that will later become the standard narrative for Switzerland during and following World War II.

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Adventurers and Agents Provocateurs

A German Woman Traveling through French West Africa in the Shadow of War

Jennifer Anne Boittin

When Dr. Rosie Gräfenberg traveled to French West Africa in 1929, she set the French security and intelligence service on high alert. Rumors preceding her arrival suggested she might be a Russian agent, a communist agitator, and a German spy, among other things. She, however, presented herself as a German journalist. This article contrasts Gräfenberg's autobiography and newspaper articles with French police archives to consider why the stories surrounding her life diverged so greatly and what variations in detail, fact, and tone reveal about how Franco-German relations influenced considerations of race, nation, gender, and sexuality in the French Empire. In part because her trajectory was so outlandish, Gräfenberg's writings help us to consider the influence of World War I upon interwar colonial politics, procedures, and presumptions.

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Travel Writers and Traveling Writers in Australasia

Responses to Travel Literatures and the Problem of Authenticity

Helen Bones

The task of forging an independent national identity has often been a source of anxiety for countries that are the product of settler colonization. This is especially true of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as imperial ties began