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Harlan Koff and Carmen Maganda

Since the end of the Cold War in 1990, “regions” and “governance” have become prominent themes in the social sciences and they have often accompanied each other in both political and academic circles. During this historical period, regions have developed in many ways, including the proliferation and deepening of regional integration schemes, including among others, the enlargement of the European Union (EU), the establishment of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the passage of the Organization of African Unity to the African Union, and the transformation of the Andean Pact into the Andean Community. While world regions were being established at the supranational level, sub-national regions also began to take form. The 1990s witnessed the development of regional economies, regional identities, regionalist ideologies, political parties, and social movements. In many cases, these transformations could not be contained by national boundaries. The notion of “borders” has recently been replaced by “border regions” as these areas have become accepted as socially constructed territories that transcend political and geographic delineations.

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Diasporas without a consciousness

Japanese Americans and the lack of a <i>Nikkei</i> identity

Takeyuki Gaku Tsuda

English abstract: Some scholars have recently suggested that the concept of diaspora should be regarded as a type of identity or consciousness instead of as a transnational ethnic community. While it is undeniable that some dispersed ethnic populations identify as diasporic peoples, older “economic diasporas“ sometimes have lost their transnational social cohesion and do not have a diasporic consciousness. I illustrate this by examining the experiences of Japanese Americans, an important part of the “Japanese diaspora“ of Japanese descendants (Nikkei) scattered throughout the Americas. Because they have become assimilated in the United States over the generations, they no longer maintain any notable diasporic identification with the ethnic homeland or to other Japanese descent ethnic communities in the Americas. Even when they encounter Nikkei from other countries, national cultural differences make it difficult for them to develop a diasporic identity as Japanese descendants with a common cultural heritage or historical experiences.

Spanish abstract: Algunos académicos han sugerido recientemente que el concepto de diáspora debe ser considerado como un tipo de identidad o conciencia en lugar de una comunidad étnica transnacional. Si bien es innegable que algunos dispersos grupos étnicos se identifican como pueblos en diáspora, las diásporas económicos más antiguos a veces han perdido su cohesión social transnacional y no tienen conciencia de diáspora. Este artículo ilustra esta situación examinando las experiencias de los estadounidenses de origen japonés, una parte importante de la diáspora japonesa de los descendientes de japoneses (Nikkei) repartidos por todo el continente americano. Debido a que se han asimilado en los Estados Unidos a lo largo de las generaciones, este grupo ya no mantiene una notable identificación de la diáspora con el país de origen étnico o con las otras comunidades de descendientes de japoneses étnicos en las Américas. Incluso cuando se encuentran con gente Nikkei de otros países, las diferencias nacionales-culturales hacen que sea difícil para ellos desarrollar una identidad de diáspora como descendientes de japoneses con un patrimonio cultural común o de experiencias históricas.

French abstract: Certains chercheurs ont récemment suggéré l’idée que le concept de diaspora devrait être considéré comme un type d’identité ou une forme de conscience, et non plus comme une communauté ethnique transnationale. S’il s’avère indéniable que certains groupes ethniques dispersés soient parvenus à s’identifier en tant que peuple de la diaspora (peuples diasporiques), il n’en demeure pas moins que les « diasporas économiques » plus anciens ont perdus dans ce processus leur cohésion sociale transnationale traditionnelle ainsi qu’une part de leur conscience diasporique. J’illustre cela en examinant les expériences des Américains d’origine japonaise, particulièrement celle de la descendance des Nikkei qui représente l’une des franges de la diaspora japonaise la plus répandue à travers les Amériques. Bien qu’ils aient réussi leur assimilation aux États-Unis au fil des générations, ces derniers n’ont toutefois pas su conserver l’identité diasporique qui les reliait avec leur région d’origine ou à d’autres communautés ethniques d’origine japonaise présentes dans les Amériques. Même quand ils rencontrent les Nikkei en provenance d’autres pays, les différences culturelles nationales qui les séparent font qu’il leur est difficile de développer une identité diasporique qui permette de les distinguer comme des descendants japonais partageant un patrimoine culturel commun ou une expérience historique commune.

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The Ukrainian divide

The power of historical narratives, imagined communities, and collective memories

Alina Penkala, Ilse Derluyn, and Ine Lietaert

Nationalists (OUP) and its armed wing, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), laid the ground for a new national identity. On the one hand, the Soviet narrative described the OUP/UPA as villains, fascist collaborators, and bourgeoise nationalists who fought

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The psychology of regions

A Vygotskian perspective

Luk Van Langenhove

shared identity is the basis for nationalism and national identity ( Smith, 1986 ). Ethnic, national, or religious identities are based upon myths and worldviews that define who is a group member (often also including who are the group's enemies) and

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Creating borders in young minds

A case study of Indian and Pakistani school textbooks

Dhananjay Tripathi

). Subsequently, state-controlled school education was regarded as essential for promoting national identity ( Durrani, 2008 ). This was done through Ismalization of school education. Ironically, despite continuous attempts by subsequent Pakistani military and

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Women and development in Vietnam

Caught between social tradition and economic globalization

Khuat Thu Hong

that you and your institute conduct in relation to gender issues? My name is Khuat Thu Hong. I earned my BA in Psychology from Moscow State University in 1984 and got my PhD in Sociology from the National Academy of Social Sciences in Hanoi in 1997. I

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Conceptualizing sub-national regional cooperation

Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia case study

Diana Morales

development that the CCLC brings is the presence of the CCLC as a trademark in regional policies and local and national media. A regional identity around the CCLC territory and a stronger sense of belonging is starting to permeate its inhabitants’ discourses

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Barriers and borders

Human mobility and building inclusive societies

Anthony Turton

issues that arise when it flows across a man-made boundary such as a jurisdictional border. I also know quite a bit about national security as a former intelligence officer. I am therefore going to present a narrative that weaves together several strands

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Is there a link?

Japan’s internal cohesion and external conflict with neighbors

Robert W. Compton Jr.

), Japan accepted only 11 asylum seekers out of 5,000 applicants that year. Ironically from 1991 to 2000, Sadako Ogata, a Japanese national, led the UNHCR as High Commissioner. Rather than an anomaly, Japan’s patterns of foreign policy behavior results from

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Harlan Koff, Carmen Maganda, Philippe De Lombaerde, Edith Kauffer, and Julia Ros Cuellar

(often identity-based) spaces for policy making and for responding to the challenges of globalization. These responses can be either proactive and based on openness or rather defensive and based on the protection of regional autonomy. Sub-national